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A Comprehensive Guide on Securing Your System, Archives and Documents

A Comprehensive Guide on Securing Your System, Archives and Documents
How can you make your system and documents secure? Today, 256-bit AES encryption is offered by everyone and their dog. However, AES encryption does not mean much (or anything at all) when it comes to the real security of your data. Implementing encryption at the right time and in the right spot is no less important than choosing strong encryption credentials and managing the encryption keys.
While the previous part may sound a bit complicated, it all comes down to much simpler things than choosing the strongest encryption algorithm or selecting the length of the encryption key. If you are a Windows user, it all comes down to choosing the optimal data protection strategy for your particular usage scenario; protecting your storage media and the data you keep on them.

Defining your goals

Before you start considering encrypting your hard drives and files, make sure to define your objectives. What information would you like to protect? What threats do you consider important, less important and quite improbable?

Full-disk encryption part I: protecting your boot device

A reliable system protection is impossible without protecting your boot device. An unencrypted boot device (disk C: on most systems) allows for way too many vectors of attack ranging from hibernation and page file analysis to instant extraction of stored passwords from your Web browser vault. In other words, securing your boot device with BitLocker is an absolutely mandatory preliminary step and the most important security layer.
  • Availability: Windows 10 Professional and higher with TPM2.0, Intel PTT or Group Policy edit; all Windows editions for device encryption in thin and light devices meeting minimum requirements.
    • Note: although Windows 10 Home cannot natively create new BitLocker volumes, it can unlock BitLocker encrypted drives with full read-write access
  • Physical access, hard drive only: strong protection
  • Physical access, entire computer: it’s complicated
  • Other users on the same computer: not applicable
  • Malware/ransomware: not applicable
  • Online attacks: not applicable
  • Usage cases: protect data against theft of computer or hard drive; protect data if hard drives are sold or RMA’d; protect data against physical extraction.
If your computer meets the requirements (namely, the presence of a hardware TPM2.0 module or software-based Intel Platform Trust Technology), enabling BitLocker on your computer can be as easy as opening the Control Panel and launching the BitLocker Drive Encryption applet. Note that not all editions of Windows 10 can use BitLocker protection.
We have a comprehensive article on BitLocker protection in our blog, which is highly recommended. Introduction to BitLocker: Protecting Your System Disk
What caveats are there when it comes to securing data against physical extraction? The thing is, while BitLocker is nearly a 100% effective solution for protecting the bare drive, it might not be as secure if the intruder has access to the entire computer with the hard drive installed. Even if your computer is equipped with a TPM2.0/Intel PTT module, Windows will still unlock the encrypted hard drive if Secure Boot conditions are met. This in turn opens numerous vectors of attack that may allow the intruder to intercept the on-the-fly BitLocker encryption key and decrypt the hard drive. These vectors of attack include:
  1. Making a RAM image of a running computer with BitLocker volume(s) mounted. This can be done via a Thunderbolt attack (Windows, by default, does not disable Thunderbolt DMA access when locked) or a cold boot attack.
  2. Breaking or extracting your Windows logon password (e.g. extracting from your Google account, your smartphone, or from another computer you have logged in and synced your data to).
  3. Obtaining your BitLocker Recovery Key from your Microsoft Account or Active Directory.
Advanced users and system administrators can read the following guide to secure their BitLocker volumes: BitLocker recovery guide

Full-disk encryption part II: protecting external storage devices

BitLocker is good not only for protecting your boot device, but for encrypting data on other volumes, built-in and removable. BitLocker protects external storage devices with BitLocker To Go, an encryption algorithm based on a password. In addition to passwords, external drives encrypted with BitLocker To Go have an option to unlock with a smart card on another computer by using BitLocker Drive Encryption in Control Panel. Finally, users can opt to make their encrypted external devices automatically unlock when connected to their (trusted) computer.
  • Availability:
    • Encrypt external devices: Windows 10 Professional and Enterprise
    • Access BitLocker encrypted devices: although Windows 10 Home cannot natively encrypt drives with BitLocker, it can access BitLocker encrypted drives with full read-write access
  • Physical access, device only: protection as strong as your password
  • Physical access, entire computer: it’s complicated (see previous chapter)
    • Note: if you enabled the option “Unlock automatically on this PC”, then effectively no protection
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Malware/ransomware: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Online attacks: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Usage cases: protect data stored on external storage devices such as external drive enclosures, USB flash drives etc.
Unlike system drive encryption, BitLocker To Go does not support multifactor authentication. This means you cannot use TPM protection as an additional form of authentication. You can, however, make BitLocker To Go devices unlock automatically when they are inserted in your (trusted) computer, which carries obvious security implications.

Full-disk encryption part III: using third-party crypto containers

I put it here just for the sake of completeness. If you are considering using a crypto-container such as VeraCrypt or PGP, you probably know what it is good for and how to use it. I’ll just add several things that aren’t immediately obvious when you set up encryption. In fact, the two things are so non-obvious that many coach experts have it backwards. (The right way: Choosing the right hashing algorithm – it’s all about slowness).
  • Availability: VeraCrypt is available on most relevant platforms
  • Physical access, hard drive only: very strong protection unless misconfigured
    • Misconfiguration examples: volume stays mounted when computer sleeps or hibernates; volume stays mounted when computer is locked (matter of security vs. convenience); volume unlocked with security key (e.g. USB flash drive) and no password (if USB flash drive is discovered)
  • Physical access, entire computer:
    • volume not mounted at time of analysis: very strong protection
    • volume mounted: very little protection
  • Other users on the same computer
    • volume not mounted at time of analysis: very strong protection
    • volume mounted: very little protection
  • Malware/ransomware: same as above
  • Online attacks: same as above
  • Usage cases: protect data against theft of computer or hard drive; protect data if hard drives are sold or RMA’d; protect data against physical extraction.
The choice of encryption algorithm (spoiler: use AES)
Crypto containers such as VeraCrypt offer the choice of several (actually, multiple) encryption algorithms that range from the industry-standard AES to some quite exotic algorithms such as Serpent or Kuznyechik. For the paranoiacs among us, VeraCrypt offers stacked encryption (e.g. the Serpent(AES) option). The thing is, the choice of an encryption algorithm does not affect the security of your data (unless you pick an algorithm with known or suspected vulnerabilities; finger pointed to Kuznyechik).
The choice of encryption algorithm does not affect the security of your data. A single round AES-256 encryption will be exactly as secure as Serpent(AES) or Serpent(Twofish(AES)). Moreover, the choice of encryption does not even affect the recovery speed (the speed of brute-force attacks on your password)!
Considering that AES is the only hardware-accelerated encryption algorithm in all reasonably modern processors, choosing any encryption algorithm other than AES-256 will unnecessarily slow down your reads and writes (expect a difference of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in theoretical RAM-to-RAM encryption speeds) without providing any additional security benefit.
If choosing an encryption algorithm other than AES does not affect security, then what does?
The choice of hashing algorithm
When VeraCrypt encrypts (or decrypts) your data, it is using a binary encryption key to perform symmetric cryptographic operations. This media encryption key (MEK) is stored along with the encrypted data. The Media Encryption Key (MEK) is encrypted with a Key Encryption Key (KEK), which, in turn, is the result of multiple (hundreds of thousands) iterative hash operations performed on the user’s password.
In other words, when you type a password, the crypto container will perform a calculation of a certain hash function, and repeat that a 100,000 times or more (in order to deliberately slow down brute-force attacks).
If you want to make your encrypted volume more secure, you can change one of the two things:
  1. Increase the number of hash iterations
  2. Don’t use defaults
  3. Choose a slower hash function
VeraCrypt allows modifying the number of hash iterations by adjusting the PIM (Personal Iterations Multiplier); here is the how-to. The PIM value controls the number of iterations that is used to derive the encryption key from the password that you type. This value can be specified through the password dialog or in the command line. If you don’t manually specify the PIM value, VeraCrypt will use the default number of iterations, which is bad because (2). For SHA-512 or Whirlpool (the two recommended choices), VeraCrypt defaults to Iterations = 15000 + (PIM x 1000).
Why would you want to change the number of hash iterations? Because an attacker will first try to break your password using the defaults. Most tools used by the attackers to brute-force your password will first run the attack using all-defaults: the default encryption algorithm (AES), hash function (SHA-512) and PIM. Changing the PIM value is an easy way to substantially increase security without making your password more complex. Changing the hashing algorithm from default (SHA-512) to Whirlpool also makes sense in this context.
Which brings us to the choice of a hashing algorithm. VeraCrypt offers the choice of SHA-512 (slow, good choice), Whirlpool (slower, even better choice), SHA-256 (slow, but not as slow as SHA-512, use other hash instead), and Streebog (untested). Choosing the right hashing algorithm – it’s all about slowness has some benchmarks and some good explanations; highly recommended. Selecting Whirlpool makes a lot of sense because a) it is slower than SHA-512 (thus will be significantly slower to attack), and b) it is a non-default selection, which significantly increases the complexity of the attack.

File system encryption: when and how to use EFS

If you read the Wikipedia article about Microsoft Encrypting File System (EFS), you’ll get that EFS has been introduced in NTFS 3.0 in order to provides file system level encryption. The article reads: “The technology enables files to be transparently encrypted to protect confidential data from attackers with physical access to the computer.”
While all of that is interesting, neither statement explains who and, most importantly, why should be using EFS, and what exactly the encrypting file system protects against.
  • Availability: all versions and all editions of Windows 10 (and most older versions of Windows)
  • Physical access, hard drive only: as strong as your Windows account password
  • Physical access, entire computer: same as above
  • Other users on the same computer: effective protection
  • Malware/ransomware: not applicable
  • Online attacks: not applicable
  • Usage cases: protect your documents from other users of your computer; an extra layer of security on BitLocker-protected drives; reasonably strong, very easy and fully transparent document encryption on computers where BitLocker is not supported.
What does EFS protect against, and who should be using it?
The purpose of Encrypting File System is protecting your data from users who share your computer. If you have a PC with several users, and each user has their own Windows login (as opposed to sharing a single Windows account), activating EFS encryption is the easiest way to protect your files from being accessed by those other users.
What is the relation between EFS and BitLocker, and which one should you use?
BitLocker protects your entire system volume. Any user who can log in to your computer will unlock the system volume. If a user has administrative privileges (or can escalate a non-admin account by using an exploit), he or she will also gain access to files and documents stored in other users’ accounts on that computer.
Encrypting File System, on the other hand, only protects selected folders. It won’t, for example, protect your instant messenger databases or encrypt your browsing history. It’s mostly just for documents, pictures and videos you keep in your account. However, EFS will effectively protect those files against other users who can log on to your computer, even if they have administrative privileges.
If an attacker got physical access to the computer, BitLocker is the first line of defence. Relying solely on EFS to secure the PC against attacks with physical access is not the best idea.
How does it all work? It’s actually quite simple. Right-click on a file or folder you’d like to encrypt, select Properties and click the Advanced button in the General tab. In the Advanced Attributes dialog select Encrypt contents to secure data and click OK.
This is it. Windows will now encrypt the selected file or folder with your Windows logon credentials. There are no passwords to type and no encryption keys to save.
There is a certain drawback to using EFS encryption. If you ever forget your Windows password and have to reset it from a separate Administrator account (or your domain administrator resets the password for you), the EFS encryption keys will be lost, and you will be unable to decrypt your data without going through the data recovery process with Elcomsoft Advanced EFS Data Recovery. Note that you must recover your Windows password in order to decrypt the files. However, if you simply change your Windows password by following the normal procedure (typing your old password followed by entering the new one), you will be fine.

Document encryption

Encrypting individual documents is an important part of multi-layer security. Microsoft Office apps can use passwords to encrypt the documents’ content. No one without a password should be able to decrypt the document.
  • Availability: all versions of Microsoft Office
  • Security: depends on the version of Microsoft Office, the file format you’re using to save the files and the strength of your password.
  • Physical access, hard drive only: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Physical access, entire computer: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Other users on your Local Area Network: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Malware/ransomware: content protection. Malware won’t be able to decrypt your files and read your data. However, malware/ransomware can still encrypt your files, effectively locking you out.
  • Online attacks: content protection. Strong protection against unauthorized data access; no protection against unauthorized deletion
  • Usage cases: protect the content of your documents against anyone who does not know the encryption password.
  • How to: Protect a document with a password
A million dollar question: if you are on a local area network, should you use EFS or document encryption to protect documents against other users on the same LAN? In this case, it’s better to use both. EFS will make it impossible to gain access to encrypted files and folders without knowing your Windows account/domain credentials. Password protection of individual documents will make documents difficult to break even if the attacker knows your logon credentials.
The caveats of document encryption
So what exactly does “strong protection (with caveats)” mean? The thing is, your documents are just as secure as the password you use to protect them. If you re-use a password you already stored in your browser cache or in the keychain, extracting that password and decrypting the documents will be a matter of minutes in many types of attacks.
What if you use a cryptographically strong and truly unique password to encrypt documents? Are these documents secure? The thing is, they will be just as secure as the office app permits them to be. In Microsoft Office encryption evolution: from Office 97 to Office 2019 I discussed the encryption algorithms and protection strength of Microsoft Office apps from the early days to the most current release.
Generally speaking, everything before Office 2000 was insecure (no protection). Office 2000, XP and Office 2003 had very weak encryption that can be usually broken in under a day.
Since Office 2007, Microsoft started taking encryption seriously. Office 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019 brought security to the new level, making encrypted documents very secure.
Okay, so you are using the latest Office and selected a strong password; are we secure now? The thing is, you’ll be just as secure as the document format allows. If you are using the newer DOCX/XLSX format (files with .docx / .xlsx extensions), you’re good. If, however, you are saving your documents in “compatibility” mode, you are sacrificing encryption and make your documents as vulnerable as if they were saved by an Office 2003 app.
Best practices:
  1. Use the latest version of Microsoft Office to save documents. If the latest version is not available, use at least Office 2013 (the newer the better).
  2. Never save documents in “compatibility” mode. Make sure that the files are DOCX/XLSX as opposed to DOC/XLS.
  3. Use a unique, cryptographically strong password to encrypt documents. Remember: if the password is broken once (e.g. pulled from your Google account or recovered from a document you accidentally saved in the “compatible” format), it will be used to break everything else, including documents with strong encryption.
  4. If you email an encrypted document, do use a unique, one-time password for that document, and never send both the document and the password in the same email. In fact, you should never send the password by email since that would allow an attacker who gained access to your email account to decrypt the document. Send the document and the password via separate communication channels (e.g. email / text message, chat or phone call).

Protecting backups and archives

Making regular backups is a common wisdom. Protecting those backups is a wisdom much less common. Once you make a backup, make sure to give it as strong a protection as your boot drive.
  1. Store backups on BitLocker-protected media. Even if your backup tool (e.g. the one built into Windows) does not support encryption, at very least your storage media is protected with full-disk encryption. Note: Windows 10 does support the recovery from BitLocker-protected disks. Just create a bootable install image from Microsoft Web site (use “Create Windows 10 installation media”).
  2. If your backup tool supports encryption, it may be a good idea to encrypt your backups (AND store them on a BitLocker-protected media). Note, however, that a backup tool will probably cache (store) your backup password on your computer to automatically encrypt new and incremental backups. For this reason, make sure to have a truly unique, never reused password for encrypting backups.
Individual folders are frequently backed up using common archive tools such as WinZip, 7Zip or WinRar. All of these tools offer the ability to encrypt archives with a password. While the encryption strength is different among the three formats (ZIP, 7Z and RAR), an up to date version of each tool provides adequate protection if you choose a reasonably complex password (e.g. 8 characters or more, combining small and capital letters with numbers and special characters). To achieve the best level of protection, do keep those archives on BitLocker-protected media.
Note that password recovery tools work significantly faster on ZIP/7Z/RAR compared to attacking BitLocker encryption or Office 2013 (and newer) documents. For this reason, never reuse your password, and make sure that your BitLocker media, your documents and your backups/archives use very different passwords (ideally, not based on the same pattern).
More information:

Cloud security: OneDrive Personal Vault

Microsoft started offering an extra layer of security to all users of its cloud storage service in the form of a Personal Vault. OneDrive Personal Vault helps secure your files both on your computer and in the cloud in the event that someone gains access to your account or your device.
Unlike ransomware protection, Personal Vault is available to all users of Microsoft OneDrive and not just to Office 365 subscribers. Technically speaking, Personal Vault is an area in the OneDrive folder on your computer and in the OneDrive cloud storage that features additional protection. You can only access this protected area after passing a strong authentication. If your Microsoft Account is protected with two-factor authentication, you will have to pass the second step of identity verification in addition to typing your Microsoft Account password.
Once configured, Personal Vault must be manually unlocked every time you need access to secured data. To unlock, you must type in your Microsoft Account password and pass the second authentication step if your account has two-factor authentication. Once you’ve finished accessing the data, Personal Vault will automatically relock after a short period of inactivity. Once locked, any files you were using will also lock and require re-authentication to access.
Setting up Personal Vault only takes a few clicks as outlined in Protect your OneDrive files in Personal Vault.
OneDrive Personal Vault is still new; no independent security analysis has been performed until today. In our view, Personal Vault is worth consideration as an extra security layer for some of the most private but rarely accessed types of data. Examples of such data may include BitLocker escrow keys and binary encryption keys, or the list of passwords some users store in encrypted Excel spreadsheets. I personally keep my two-factor authentication secrets (scanned QR codes to initialize the Authenticator app) in the Vault as well.
  • Physical access: unknown (not yet analyzed)
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection
  • Malware/ransomware: strong protection (unless Personal Vault is unlocked at the time malware is running)
  • Online attacks: as strong as your Microsoft Account security
  • Usage cases: activate to add an extra layer of security for a handful of personal documents, encryption keys, 2fa secrets etc.

Ransomware protection

One of the most important threats not covered by any encryption is the type of malware called ransomware. Ransomware is a type of malware that threatens to either publish the data stolen from the victim or perpetually block access to the victim’s files by encrypting them with a key that is only known to the attacker. The term ‘ransomware’ has emerged from the fact that, on many cases, attackers demand a ransom payment to decrypt data.
Protecting your data against ransomware is a complex topic in itself. However, computer users can choose one or both of the following two defences when it comes to ransomware protection.
Ransomware protection is effective against the following threats.
  • Physical access: no protection
  • Other users on the same computer: no protection
  • Malware/ransomware: effective protection
  • Online attacks: as strong as your cloud account security
  • Usage cases: available automatically to Office 365 subscribers. Available to paid Dropbox users. Automatically protects files stored in OneDrive/Dropbox. Automatic alerts (OneDrive only). Automatic restore (OneDrive only); manual restore (Dropbox).
Use cloud storage with automatic ransomware protection
If you are using Windows 10, most likely you already have a Microsoft Account. The Microsoft Account gives you access to OneDrive, Microsoft’s cloud storage solution. The free tier includes 5 to 15 GB of online storage, while Office 365 subscribers receive the whole terabyte of cloud storage.
Microsoft actively promotes OneDrive Ransomware Protection. OneDrive automatically detects when the files are mass-deleted or mass-edited (such as when ransomware encrypts the entire Documents folder), alerts the user and prompts to restore the known-good snapshot. The File Restore feature is only available to Office 365 subscribers (Home and Personal levels are enough to receive protection).
More information at Ransomware detection and recovering your files.
If you prefer Dropbox to Microsoft OneDrive, Dropbox gets you covered against ransomware attacks, but mostly for higher-level paid tiers. Users of the free Basic tier as well as Plus subscribers can roll back individual encrypted files during the first 30 days after the attack (there will be no warning of mass-deletion of mass-encryption of files coming from the Dropbox app). If you want to roll back the entire Documents folder with Dropbox Rewind, you’ll need to be a paid Plus or Professional tier subscriber.
More information:
Make backup snapshots. Keep backup media offline
Once ransomware is installed on your computer, it will try to encrypt every document that is accessible. The obvious solution is making documents inaccessible by physically disconnecting backup media (such as using 2.5” portable USB drives to back up). In this scenario, you would only connect backup media to your computer when you actually want to make the backup, disconnecting the disk after the backup tool finishes its job. With this approach, even if your computer is attacked by ransomware, your offline backups will not be affected (unless you connected the external drive to the computer at the time the ransomware was installed).
In addition, configure your backup tool to keep snapshots of your data going back as long as permitted by available storage. In our office, an affordable 4TB USB hard drive can keep approximately 30 to 40 full snapshots of the Documents folder; this number becomes significantly larger if you enable incremental backups, with each snapshot saving only
More information:
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Help setting up Cetus3D MkII with TinyFab CPU for Smoothieware and Cura

Help setting up Cetus3D MkII with TinyFab CPU for Smoothieware and Cura
First of all, apologies for the massive post.
I have my Cetus3D MkII with TinyFab CPU installed. I have now spent days getting the BLTouch installed and 3 point leveling working.
I am at the stage of trying to get a 20mm cube printed and have decided to use Cura for slicing and producing the G-Code and then issuing the GCode via Repetier-Host which I think TinyFab himself uses.
I not using Up Studio to print the GCode
I am totally willing to experiment to get print quality to match / exceed what I was getting in Up Studio but I am having a lot of difficulty getting started.
There are various posts re. Cura and the Cetus3D but I am not sure if they involve the TinyFab CPU or if they are just for printing GCode in UpStudio as most of the posts are over a year old now.

I'm so stuck and would appreciate any assistance. I'm a bit surprised there isn't more info on the TinyFab support site to allow a new user to get started.

My Smoothieware settings are down the bottom of the page - note gamma_max of 185.

I then calibrate the Z axis using a piece of paper under the nozzle in the center of the build plate using the following GCode:
G28 #Home all axis G1 X90 Y90 Z10 #Move nozzle to middle of plate at 10mm above zero MOVE NOZZLE DOWN GRADUALLY TO ALLOW PAPER TO FIT UNDER M306 Z0 #Set new zero location M500 #Store new zero location permanently (M500). This writes the setting in the config-override file G28 #Home axis 
This results in the axis set to X180.00, Y0.00 and Z180.10 due to the 4.90mm offset when callibrating. This can be seen by issuing an M114 command:
M114 ok C: X:180.0000 Y:0.0000 Z:180.1000 E:0.0000 

Stepper positions after performing G28 home on all axis
This is what I believe the coordinates to be in reference to the build plate before messing with any axis offsets:
Now... I have seen the Cura GCode config on Reddit and another on the Cetus3D forums and it has a couple of commands that I am quite confused by:
M206 X-180 ; offset X axis so the coordinates are 0..180 M206 Z-182.3 ; nozzle offset (TUNE before using!!) 
I don't know why I have to offset these axis. Is it to move 0,0 to the front left of the build plate as shown by origin in Cura below ? Do I have to do this if I'm printing via GCode through Repetier-Host ? Are these settings only for using Cura GCode in Up Studio ?
What is the Z axis nozzle offset doing ? I tried this thinking that it would make the origin at 0,0,180 - when I did this and issued a G1 Z180 it tried to run the Z axis off the top ie. it went up and not down to 180 as I expected.

Is this position in Cura supposed to be 0,0,180 as Smoothieware sees it ? At the moment it would be 180,0,0 in Smoothieware.
If I move to 0,0,0 this is where the print head is - this looks fine to me.
Does this mean I don't have to worry about offsetting the X and Z axis ?

The Cura GCode settings I have found are varied:
# Smoothieboard configuration file, see # NOTE Lines must not exceed 132 characters, and '#' characters mean what follows is ignored ## Robot module configurations : general handling of movement G-codes and slicing into moves # Basic motion configuration default_feed_rate 4000 # Default speed (mm/minute) for G1/G2/G3 moves default_seek_rate 4000 # Default speed (mm/minute) for G0 moves mm_per_arc_segment 0.0 # Fixed length for line segments that divide arcs, 0 to disable #mm_per_line_segment 5 # Cut lines into segments this size mm_max_arc_error 0.01 # The maximum error for line segments that divide arcs 0 to disable # note it is invalid for both the above be 0 # if both are used, will use largest segment length based on radius # Arm solution configuration : Cartesian robot. Translates mm positions into stepper positions alpha_steps_per_mm 160 # Steps per mm for alpha stepper beta_steps_per_mm 160 # Steps per mm for beta stepper gamma_steps_per_mm 160 # Steps per mm for gamma stepper # Planner module configuration : Look-ahead and acceleration configuration # See acceleration 3000 # Acceleration in mm/second/second. #z_acceleration 500 # Acceleration for Z only moves in mm/s^2, 0 uses acceleration which is the default. DO NOT SET ON A DELTA junction_deviation 0.05 # See #z_junction_deviation 0.0 # For Z only moves, -1 uses junction_deviation, zero disables junction_deviation on z moves DO NOT SET ON A DELTA # Cartesian axis speed limits x_axis_max_speed 30000 # Maximum speed in mm/min y_axis_max_speed 30000 # Maximum speed in mm/min z_axis_max_speed 300 # Maximum speed in mm/min # Stepper module configuration # Pins are defined as ports, and pin numbers, appending "!" to the number will invert a pin # See and alpha_step_pin 2.0 # Pin for alpha stepper step signal alpha_dir_pin 0.5 # Pin for alpha stepper direction alpha_en_pin 2.4! #0.4 # Pin for alpha enable pin alpha_current 1.5 # X stepper motor current alpha_max_rate 30000.0 # mm/min beta_step_pin 2.1 # Pin for beta stepper step signal beta_dir_pin 0.11 # Pin for beta stepper direction beta_en_pin 2.4! #0.10 # Pin for beta enable beta_current 1.5 # Y stepper motor current beta_max_rate 30000.0 # mm/min gamma_step_pin 2.2 # Pin for gamma stepper step signal gamma_dir_pin 0.20! # Pin for gamma stepper direction gamma_en_pin 2.4! # 0.19 # Pin for gamma enable gamma_current 1.5 # Z stepper motor current gamma_max_rate 300.0 # mm/min ## Extruder module configuration # See extruder.hotend.enable true # Whether to activate the extruder module at all. All configuration is ignored if false extruder.hotend.steps_per_mm 230 # up 640*1.53 Steps per mm for extruder stepper extruder.hotend.default_feed_rate 600 # Default rate ( mm/minute ) for moves where only the extruder moves extruder.hotend.acceleration 500 # Acceleration for the stepper motor mm/sec² extruder.hotend.max_speed 50 # mm/s extruder.hotend.step_pin 2.3 # Pin for extruder step signal extruder.hotend.dir_pin 0.22 # Pin for extruder dir signal extruder.hotend.en_pin 2.4! # 0.21 # Pin for extruder enable signal # extruder offset #extruder.hotend.x_offset 0 # x offset from origin in mm #extruder.hotend.y_offset 0 # y offset from origin in mm #extruder.hotend.z_offset 0 # z offset from origin in mm # firmware retract settings when using G10/G11, these are the defaults if not defined, must be defined for each extruder if not using the defaults #extruder.hotend.retract_length 3 # retract length in mm #extruder.hotend.retract_feedrate 45 # retract feedrate in mm/sec #extruder.hotend.retract_recover_length 0 # additional length for recover #extruder.hotend.retract_recover_feedrate 8 # recover feedrate in mm/sec (should be less than retract feedrate) #extruder.hotend.retract_zlift_length 0 # zlift on retract in mm, 0 disables #extruder.hotend.retract_zlift_feedrate 6000 # zlift feedrate in mm/min (Note mm/min NOT mm/sec) delta_current 1.5 # First extruder stepper motor current # # Second extruder module configuration # extruder.hotend2.enable true # Whether to activate the extruder module at all. All configuration is ignored if false # extruder.hotend2.steps_per_mm 140 # Steps per mm for extruder stepper # extruder.hotend2.default_feed_rate 600 # Default rate ( mm/minute ) for moves where only the extruder moves # extruder.hotend2.acceleration 500 # Acceleration for the stepper motor, as of 0.6, arbitrary ratio # extruder.hotend2.max_speed 50 # mm/s # extruder.hotend2.step_pin 2.8 # Pin for extruder step signal # extruder.hotend2.dir_pin 2.6 # Pin for extruder dir signal # extruder.hotend2.en_pin 4.29 # Pin for extruder enable signal # extruder.hotend2.x_offset 0 # x offset from origin in mm # extruder.hotend2.y_offset 25.0 # y offset from origin in mm # extruder.hotend2.z_offset 0 # z offset from origin in mm # #epsilon_current 1.5 # Second extruder stepper motor current ## Laser module configuration # See laser_module_enable false # Whether to activate the laser module at all. All configuration is # ignored if false. #laser_module_pin 2.5 # this pin will be PWMed to control the laser. Only P2.0 - P2.5, P1.18, P1.20, P1.21, P1.23, P1.24, P1.26, P3.25, P3.26 # can be used since laser requires hardware PWM #laser_module_maximum_power 1.0 # this is the maximum duty cycle that will be applied to the laser #laser_module_minimum_power 0.0 # This is a value just below the minimum duty cycle that keeps the laser # active without actually burning. #laser_module_default_power 0.8 # This is the default laser power that will be used for cuts if a power has not been specified. The value is a scale between # the maximum and minimum power levels specified above #laser_module_pwm_period 20 # this sets the pwm frequency as the period in microseconds ## Temperature control configuration # See ######################################## ntc not used for up/cetus ## First hotend configuration #temperature_control.hotend.enable true # Whether to activate this ( "hotend" ) module at all. #temperature_control.hotend.thermistor_pin 0.23 # Pin for the thermistor to read #temperature_control.hotend.heater_pin 2.7 # Pin that controls the heater, set to nc if a readonly thermistor is being defined #temperature_control.hotend.thermistor EPCOS100K # see ##temperature_control.hotend.beta 4066 # or set the beta value #temperature_control.hotend.set_m_code 104 # #temperature_control.hotend.set_and_wait_m_code 109 # #temperature_control.hotend.designator T # #temperature_control.hotend.max_temp 300 # Set maximum temperature - Will prevent heating above 300 by default #temperature_control.hotend.min_temp 20 # Set minimum temperature - Will prevent heating below if set # ## Safety control is enabled by default and can be overidden here, the values show the defaults ## See #temperature_control.hotend.runaway_heating_timeout 900 # How long it can take to heat up, max is 2040 seconds. ##temperature_control.hotend.runaway_cooling_timeout 0 # How long it can take to cool down if temp is set lower, max is 2040 seconds #temperature_control.hotend.runaway_range 50 # How far from the set temperature it can wander, max setting is 63°C # ## PID configuration ## See #temperature_control.hotend.p_factor 30 # P ( proportional ) factor #temperature_control.hotend.i_factor 0.3 # I ( integral ) factor #temperature_control.hotend.d_factor 300 # D ( derivative ) factor # ##temperature_control.hotend.max_pwm 64 # max pwm, 64 is a good value if driving a 12v resistor with 24v. ####################################### # First hotend configuration temperature_control.hotend.enable true temperature_control.hotend.sensor pt100 temperature_control.hotend.thermistor_pin 0.23 temperature_control.hotend.ampmod1_pin 1.20 # UP! printer uses this to "energize" the RTD temperature_control.hotend.ampmod2_pin 1.21 # set as nc if you don't need to energize RTD temperature_control.hotend.slope 0.0257604875 temperature_control.hotend.yintercept -18.54 temperature_control.hotend.heater_pin 2.7 temperature_control.hotend.set_m_code 104 temperature_control.hotend.set_and_wait_m_code 109 temperature_control.hotend.designator T temperature_control.hotend.max_temp 300 temperature_control.hotend.min_temp -10 # Safety control is enabled by default and can be overidden here, the values show the defaults # See temperature_control.hotend.runaway_heating_timeout 1200 # How long it can take to heat up, max is 2040 seconds. #temperature_control.hotend.runaway_cooling_timeout 0 # How long it can take to cool down if temp is set lower, max is 2040 seconds temperature_control.hotend.runaway_range 50 # How far from the set temperature it can wander, max setting is 63°C ## PID configuration ## See temperature_control.hotend.p_factor 22 #23.0 temperature_control.hotend.i_factor 1.047 #1.104 temperature_control.hotend.d_factor 115 #120 temperature_control.hotend.max_pwm 200 # 160 # max pwm, 64 is a good value if driving a 12v resistor with 24v. ####################################### optional use underside port as 2nd extruder # second hotend configuration temperature_control.hotend2.enable false # Whether to activate this ( "hotend" ) module at all. temperature_control.hotend2.thermistor_pin 0.26 # Pin for the thermistor to read temperature_control.hotend2.heater_pin 0.4 # Pin that controls the heater, set to nc if a readonly thermistor is being defined #temperature_control.hotend2.thermistor EPCOS100K # see temperature_control.hotend2.beta 3950 # or set the beta value temperature_control.hotend2.set_m_code 104 # temperature_control.hotend2.set_and_wait_m_code 109 # temperature_control.hotend2.designator T1 # temperature_control.hotend2.max_temp 300 # Set maximum temperature - Will prevent heating above 300 by default temperature_control.hotend2.min_temp 20 # Set minimum temperature - Will prevent heating below if set # Safety control is enabled by default and can be overidden here, the values show the defaults # See temperature_control.hotend2.runaway_heating_timeout 900 # How long it can take to heat up, max is 2040 seconds. #temperature_control.hotend2.runaway_cooling_timeout 0 # How long it can take to cool down if temp is set lower, max is 2040 seconds temperature_control.hotend2.runaway_range 50 # How far from the set temperature it can wander, max setting is 63°C # PID configuration # See #temperature_control.hotend2.p_factor 30 # P ( proportional ) factor #temperature_control.hotend2.i_factor 0.3 # I ( integral ) factor #temperature_control.hotend2.d_factor 300 # D ( derivative ) factor ##temperature_control.hotend2.max_pwm 64 # max pwm, 64 is a good value if driving a 12v resistor with 24v. ####################################### ###################################### Cetus use the underside port as bed control enable for tinyfab heatbed driver temperature_control.bed.enable false # Whether to activate this ( "hotend" ) module at all. temperature_control.bed.thermistor_pin 0.26 # Pin for the thermistor to read temperature_control.bed.heater_pin 0.4 # Pin that controls the heater #temperature_control.bed.thermistor Honeywell100K # See temperature_control.bed.beta 3950 # Or set the beta value temperature_control.bed.set_m_code 140 # M-code to set the temperature for this module temperature_control.bed.set_and_wait_m_code 190 # M-code to set-and-wait for this module temperature_control.bed.designator B # Designator letter for this module # Bang-bang ( simplified ) control # See temperature_control.bed.bang_bang false # set to true to use bang bang control rather than PID temperature_control.bed.hysteresis 2.0 # set to the temperature in degrees C to use as hysteresis ################################ # when using bang bang ################################ UP plus/mini use internal bed control # temperature_control.bed.enable true # temperature_control.bed.sensor pt100 # temperature_control.bed.slope 0.0234092253 # temperature_control.bed.yintercept -2.85 # temperature_control.bed.thermistor_pin 0.24 # temperature_control.bed.heater_pin 2.5 # temperature_control.bed.set_m_code 140 # temperature_control.bed.set_and_wait_m_code 190 # temperature_control.bed.designator B # temperature_control.bed.bang_bang true # temperature_control.bed.hysteresis 1.0 # #temperature_control.bed.p_factor 13.7 # #temperature_control.bed.i_factor 0.097 # #temperature_control.bed.d_factor 24 ################################# ## Switch modules # See switch.psu.enable true # turn atx on/off switch.psu.input_on_command M80 # switch.psu.input_off_command M81 # switch.psu.output_pin 2.4 # open drain, inverted switch.psu.startup_state false switch.psu.output_type digital # on/off only switch.psu.failsafe_set_to 1 # so the ATX turns off on a system crash switch.psu.ignore_on_halt true # so the ATX does not turn off on a HALT condition (like limit trigger) # However leave commented or set to false if you want the ATX to turn off for an over heat fault condition switch.buzzer.enable true ## true # switch.buzzer.output_pin 0.25 # #switch.motor.enable false # true #switch.motor.output_pin 2.4 #switch.motor.startup_state true ## Switch module for fan control true # M106 # M107 # 2.5 # 2.15 # 1.18 pwm # pwm output settable with S parameter in the input_on_comand 255 # set max pwm for the pin default is 255 #switch.misc.enable true # #switch.misc.input_on_command M42 # #switch.misc.input_off_command M43 # #switch.misc.output_pin 2.4 # #switch.misc.output_type digital # just an on or off pin switch.buzzer.enable true # switch.buzzer.output_pin 0.25 switch.servo.enable true switch.servo.input_on_command M280 #97.0 # 100 - 3% switch.servo.input_off_command M280 #93.0 # 100 - 7% switch.servo.output_pin 1.18 # Pin connected to the aux-port switch.servo.output_type hwpwm # H/W PWM output settable switch.servo.pwm_period_ms 20 # Default is 50Hz ## Temperatureswitch # See # Automatically toggle a switch at a specified temperature. Different ones of these may be defined to monitor different temperatures and switch different swithxes # Useful to turn on a fan or water pump to cool the hotend #temperatureswitch.hotend.enable true # #temperatureswitch.hotend.designator T # first character of the temperature control designator to use as the temperature sensor to monitor #temperatureswitch.hotend.switch misc # select which switch to use, matches the name of the defined switch #temperatureswitch.hotend.threshold_temp 60.0 # temperature to turn on (if rising) or off the switch #temperatureswitch.hotend.heatup_poll 15 # poll heatup at 15 sec intervals #temperatureswitch.hotend.cooldown_poll 60 # poll cooldown at 60 sec intervals ## Endstops # See endstops_enable true # The endstop module is enabled by default and can be disabled here #corexy_homing false # Set to true if homing on a hbot or corexy #alpha_min_endstop 1.25^ # Pin to read min endstop, add a ! to invert if endstop is NO connected to ground alpha_max_endstop 1.24^ # Pin to read max endstop, uncomment this and comment the above if using max endstops alpha_homing_direction home_to_max # Or set to home_to_max and set alpha_max and uncomment the alpha_max_endstop alpha_min 0 # This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_min is set alpha_max 180 # This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_max is set beta_min_endstop 1.26^ # Pin to read min endstop, add a ! to invert if endstop is NO connected to ground #beta_max_endstop 1.27^ # Pin to read max endstop, uncomment this and comment the above if using max endstops beta_homing_direction home_to_min # Or set to home_to_max and set alpha_max and uncomment the alpha_max_endstop beta_min 0 # This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_min is set beta_max 180 # This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_max is set #gamma_min_endstop 1.29^ # Pin to read min endstop, add a ! to invert if endstop is NO connected to ground gamma_max_endstop 1.28^ # Pin to read max endstop, uncomment this and comment the above if using max endstops gamma_homing_direction home_to_max # Or set to home_to_max and set alpha_max and uncomment the alpha_max_endstop gamma_min 0 # This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_min is set gamma_max 185 #This gets loaded as the current position after homing when home_to_max is set alpha_max_travel 190 # 190 # Max travel in mm for alpha/X axis when homing beta_max_travel 190 # 190 # Max travel in mm for beta/Y axis when homing gamma_max_travel 190 #9 # 190 # Max travel in mm for gamma/Z axis when homing # Optional enable limit switches, actions will stop if any enabled limit switch is triggered (all are set for delta) #alpha_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable X min and max limit switches #beta_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable Y min and max limit switches #gamma_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable Z min and max limit switches # Endstops home at their fast feedrate first, then once the endstop is found they home again at their slow feedrate for accuracy alpha_fast_homing_rate_mm_s 50 # Alpha/X fast homing feedrate in mm/second alpha_slow_homing_rate_mm_s 25 # Alpha/X slow homing feedrate in mm/second beta_fast_homing_rate_mm_s 50 # Beta/Y fast homing feedrate in mm/second beta_slow_homing_rate_mm_s 25 # Beta/Y slow homing feedrate in mm/second gamma_fast_homing_rate_mm_s 4 # Gamma/Z fast homing feedrate in mm/second gamma_slow_homing_rate_mm_s 2 # Gamma/Z slow homing feedrate in mm/second alpha_homing_retract_mm 5 # Distance to retract from the endstop after it is hit for alpha/X beta_homing_retract_mm 5 # Distance to retract from the endstop after it is hit for beta/Y gamma_homing_retract_mm 5 # Distance to retract from the endstop after it is hit for gamma/Z # Optional enable limit switches, actions will stop if any enabled limit switch is triggered (all are set for delta) #alpha_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable X min and max limit switches #beta_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable Y min and max limit switches #gamma_limit_enable false # Set to true to enable Z min and max limit switches # optional order in which axis will home, default is they all home at the same time, # if this is set it will force each axis to home one at a time in the specified order #homing_order XYZ # X axis followed by Y then Z last #move_to_origin_after_home false # Move XY to 0,0 after homing #endstop_debounce_count 100 # Uncomment if you get noise on your endstops, default is 100 #endstop_debounce_ms 1 # Uncomment if you get noise on your endstops, default is 1 millisecond debounce home_z_first true # Uncomment and set to true to home the Z first, otherwise Z homes after XY # End of endstop config # Delete the above endstop section and uncomment next line and copy and edit Snippets/abc-endstop.config file to enable endstops for ABC axis #include abc-endstop.config ## Z-probe # See #zprobe.enable false # Set to true to enable a zprobe #zprobe.probe_pin 2.13 #2.13!^ # Pin probe is attached to, if NC remove the ! (2.13 = door check port) #zprobe.slow_feedrate 5 # Mm/sec probe feed rate #zprobe.debounce_count 100 # Set if noisy #zprobe.fast_feedrate 100 # Move feedrate mm/sec #zprobe.probe_height 10 # How much above bed to start probe #gamma_min_endstop nc # Normally 1.28. Change to nc to prevent conflict, zprobe.enable true zprobe.probe_pin 2.13 zprobe.slow_feedrate 5 zprobe.fast_feedrate 100 zprobe.probe_height 10 gamma_min_endstop nc # Normally 1.28. Change to nc to prevent conflict, # Levelling strategy # Example for 3-point levelling strategy, see wiki documentation for other strategies leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.enable true leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.point1 10,10 # # first probe point leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.point2 170,10 ##second probe point leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.point3 170,170 #ird probe point leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.home_first false # home the XY axis before probing leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.tolerance 0.03 leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.probe_offsets 40,-20,0 #37.6,-19.5,0 #based on the bracket leveling-strategy.three-point-leveling.save_plane false ## # Panel See panel.enable 0 # true # set to true to enable the panel code # Example viki2 config for Re-ARM with IDC cable panel.lcd viki2 # set type of panel panel.spi_channel 0 # set spi channel to use P0_18,P0_15 MOSI,SCLK panel.spi_cs_pin 0.16 # set spi chip select panel.spi_frequency 200000 panel.encoder_a_pin 3.26!^ # encoder pin panel.encoder_b_pin 3.25!^ # encoder pin panel.click_button_pin 2.11!^ # click button panel.a0_pin 2.6 # st7565 needs an a0 panel.contrast 4 # override contrast setting (default is 9) panel.encoder_resolution 4 # override number of clicks to move 1 item (default is 4) panel.pause_button_enable true #panel.button_pause_pin 1.22!^ # kill/pause set one of these for the auxilliary button on viki2 panel.back_button_pin 1.22!^ # back button recommended to use this on EXP1 panel.buzz_pin 0.25 # pin for buzzer on EXP2 panel.red_led_pin 2.8 # pin for red led on viki2 on EXP1 panel.blue_led_pin 4.29 # pin for blue led on viki2 on EXP1 panel.external_sd true # set to true if there is an extrernal sdcard on the panel panel.external_sd.spi_channel 0 # set spi channel the sdcard is on panel.external_sd.spi_cs_pin 1.23 # set spi chip select for the sdcard panel.external_sd.sdcd_pin 1.31!^ # sd detect signal (set to nc if no sdcard detect) panel.menu_offset 0 # some panels will need 1 here panel.reverse false # reverse the lcd ## Custom menus : Example of a custom menu entry, which will show up in the Custom entry. # NOTE _ gets converted to space in the menu and commands, | is used to separate multiple commands custom_menu.power_on.enable true # Power_on # custom_menu.power_on.command M80 # custom_menu.power_off.enable true # Power_off # custom_menu.power_off.command M81 # custom_menu.fan_on.enable true # Fan_on # custom_menu.fan_on.command M106_P0_S255 # custom_menu.fan_off.enable true # Fan_off # custom_menu.fan_off.command M107_P0 # custom_menu.Suspend.enable true # Suspend # custom_menu.Suspend.command M600 # custom_menu.Resume.enable true # Resume # custom_menu.Resume.command M601 # ## Network settings # See network.enable false # Enable the ethernet network services network.webserver.enable true # Enable the webserver network.telnet.enable true # Enable the telnet server #network.ip_address auto # Use dhcp to get ip address # Uncomment the 3 below to manually setup ip address network.ip_address # The IP address network.ip_mask # The ip mask network.ip_gateway # The gateway address #network.mac_override xx.xx.xx.xx.xx.xx # Override the mac address, only do this if you have a conflict ## System configuration # Serial communications configuration ( baud rate defaults to 9600 if undefined ) # For communication over the UART port, *not* the USB/Serial port uart0.baud_rate 115200 # Baud rate for the default hardware serial port second_usb_serial_enable false # This enables a second USB serial port leds_disable true # disable using leds after config loaded #play_led_disable true # disable the play led # Kill button maybe assigned to a different pin, set to the onboard pin by default # See kill_button_enable true # set to true to enable a kill button kill_button_pin 2.12 # kill button pin. default is same as pause button 2.12 (2.11 is another good choice) #msd_disable false # disable the MSD (USB SDCARD) when set to true (needs special binary) #dfu_enable false # for linux developers, set to true to enable DFU # Only needed on a smoothieboard # See currentcontrol_module_enable false # Control stepper motor current via the configuration file 
submitted by thecaptain78 to cetus3d [link] [comments]

State Capitalism

The text below is an exchange had between Sire_26 and the BSA chat group about State Capitalism. This record exists for the sake of education and does not necessarily reflect the positions of BSA as a whole.
Please feel free to leave your thoughts in the comments below.
Sire_26: Lenin [identified as] an orthodox Marxist, so he felt that the USSR needed to be in a holding pattern until a revolution took place in Germany or another more developed country; the thing is, Russia never left that holding pattern until the collapse of the USSR.
Anon #1: yeah
Sire_26: When “capitalism” as we understand it took full control. Trotsky predicted this would happen.
Anon #1: now russia is just as capitalist as anywhere else, and considerably smaller.
Sire_26: Mikhail Bakunin is the real ☕️, tho. PLEASE read him.
Anon #2: What are your thoughts on Luxemburgism?
Sire_26: The only “ism” and “ist” labels you should be entertaining is “Marxist” and various forms of “Socialist” lol everything else is dogma.
Luxemburg is super important, and everyone should read her works on “reform” and the role that it should play. But she should be someone we’re studying just like everyone else (including Lenin, Mao, Trotsky... they all have thoughts to contribute to this conversation).
We have to stay true to the science (dialectics), though.
Anon #3: Wait are we saying that Soviet Russia was capitalist?
Anon #2: It was lol It had capitalistic aspects at some points but they definitely tried socialism. At least in my research.
Anon #3: I think that’s a bit intellectually dishonest lol of course Czarist Russia was capitalist and imperialist, but after the Russian revolution and the formation of the Soviet Union I think it would be more than misleading to call Russia/Soviet Union “capitalist.”
Just because there is a socialist revolution, does not mean that the bourgeoisie and remnants of capitalism just are wiped away like with the brush of a stroke.
The dictatorship of the proletariat has to be installed to suppress bourgeoisie/capitalist counter revolution.
According to Stalin/Lenin there has to be an entire historical epoch of socialism to transition society into communism.
Sire_26: It was state capitalist.
Anon #4: Czarist Russia was more of a mix a capitalism and feudalism than actual capitalism
Anon #3: Czarist Russia represented all of the ills of rising imperialism.
Sire_26: Internally, it was never socialist to begin with. From the infrastructure of the Bolshevik Party, to the later formation of the USSR. Vladimir Lenin advocated for and acknowledged this (including state capitalism). The problem is that because of things like democratic centralism and the overall adherence to orthodox Marxist principles, the conditions were set for the totalitarian state to come to fruition under Stalin, and ultimately, as Trotsky predicted, for the USSR to collapse.
If you read Lenin, you’ll see exactly what I’m referring to.
Anon #2: I find this very interesting lol
Sire_26: Lenin not only acknowledged, but desired & promoted the State Capitalist nature of the Soviet Union, & this can be seen through his intra-party debates & private letters.
See here:
See here:
Please read:'%20control.pdf
The Bolsheviks inherited an economy that was underdeveloped (coming from feudalism). Lenin’s solution was “State Capitalism,” which would allow the economy to develop. This required capitalist policy, but with specific sectors of the economy controlled by the state.
Lenin rationalized this approach with Marxist theory, pulling on the idea of capitalist development being necessary before Socialism can truly succeed. [Marx actually rejected stagism at the end of his life, for the record.]
Lenin also believed that a socialist revolution in Germany would provide the developing Soviet economy with resources and support.
Regardless of what his intentions were, what Lenin and his party advocated for in a move towards Socialism set the conditions for the catastrophes that would later transpire, and U.S. government propaganda will continue to cite this in arguing that “Socialism” should be avoided.
We mustn’t fetishize the leaders of the past, or be apologists for the errors in their rationales. We must learn from the mistakes in their methods in an effort to develop realistic approaches that stay true to the socialistic principles we all claim to embody.
This is not a discussion about Lenin’s “intent,” but rather what did and did not exist in the USSR.
Please see here:
Marx and Lenin's views contrasted | By Richard Montague … via @OfficialSPGB
Please scroll down to number five (“Current Tasks of the Trade Unions”) to see where Lenin makes a demand for “one-man” management:
“On the Question of the Trade Unions and their Organization” | From the 9th Congress of the Bolshevik Party (1 April 1920)
Lenin in 1919 demanding one-man management:
“Introduction of One-Man Management in Lieu of Board Management in Centrotextil: Draft Decision for the Council of People’s Commissars” | By Vladimir Lenin
Given the circumstances, one could find many arguments for why a “one-man management” policy (amongst other things) could’ve theoretically worked for the time, but policies like this were inherently antithetical to socialist principles, and set the stage for later catastrophe.
Anon #3:
Sire_26: Obviously they tried it. It wasn’t what feudal Russia was. But this doesn’t mean that it was actually socialist or communist. So many of Lenin’s positions were completely antithetical to Marxist principles, and many self-identifying Marxist-Leninists excuse this by saying those who take issue are “utopian,” when really it’s just Marxism. It’s actually not that complicated.
Some Marxist-Leninists acknowledge this, but most don’t.
This is one of those topics where, if you haven’t read deep into the history, or read Marx or Lenin or Trotsky or Stalin (and I mean actually read them, or at the very least thorough summaries of their positions), then we’re just going to keep talking in circles.
The crux of the conversation is State Capitalism vs. Socialism. A Communist State vs. a Communist Society (as outlined by Marx). You can call any of it whatever you want (the semantics aren’t what’s important here); what matters is that we understand the characteristics of each potential existence and/or theory, as well as what really happened in the past.
This is why we have to be vigilant in combating dogmatism. It tries to shortcut digging into the reality of the history, and this is dangerous, because – as the cliche goes – those who fail to understand history are doomed to repeat it.
“Scientific Socialism” as an idea and concept is what we should be collectively adhering to; not the philosophy of only one person or revolutionary leader, but dialectics (the science).
I highly recommend Anton Pannekoek’s writing on State Capitalism:
Anton Pannekoek - State Capitalism and Dictatorship
This is one of those difficult things, because many of our Black revolutionaries of the past identified with Marxism-Leninism and Maoism. But, again, if you read Fred Hampton’s speeches, he talked about the dialectics – the objective reality of our situation. The reality of our situation now is not the same as what it was in 1969 America, or 1917 Russia. Malcolm X also spoke about this in “The Ballot or the Bullet” too. We can’t look at their words in a static way and try to format them to now; it won’t work.
Lenin and Trotsky’s methods may have held more weight in the past (on paper), and strictly in a theoretical sense for their time (and there’s a lot to learn from their strategy when it comes to direct action and propaganda campaigns), but we’re dealing with a different situation/reality right now, and we need REAL socialism. We need REAL communism (as outlined by Marx).
We don’t need centralized power and more* state capitalism. Our state is already working off of fiat currency. We have already accumulated enough wealth ... for shit to change on a widespread level under socialist representation. We just need to break through the liberal and conservative propaganda, as well as the voter suppression.
In 1969, when Hampton was advocating for the collectivization of arms and weaponry in Cook County, there may* have been more weight and logic to that strategy. In 2018, where the military power of the state is even wider and enforced, this approach is not only not logical; it’s not possible (at the degree to which he spoke of). It just isn’t.
We have to be looking at how poor and working-class people are to actually take control of the state apparatus, as well as the private sector (this means in the workplace). This requires a certain degree of gradualism (please read Luxemburg for more on this, though).
Anon #5: I think looking at one as impossible and the other as possible through gradualism is a mistake. The only thing that any of us agree on is the idea that that revolution, through ballot or bullet, is going to be unfathomably difficult.
Sire_26: Looking at what as impossible?
Anon #5: Collectivization of arms and weaponry. If the idea of a gradual victory is possible in your mind for taking control of state apparatus, there has to be room in your mind for the other option. Dismissing either entirely is a mistake.
Anon #6: It's a false dichotomy to my mind.
Sire_26: Did you listen to Malcolm X’s “The Ballot or the Bullet”? Genuinely asking (not being insincere). The entire point X was making is that despite the fact that every revolution throughout history has been bloody, we’re in a unique position here in America. Even though we don’t have a true “democracy,” we still have democratic processes in front of us that we need to take advantage of as Black American people.
If you’re entertaining the idea of insurrection (that is, an armed uprising against the state) in 2018, then you’re simply not thinking about the practical points of such an effort.
We need to be on the road to real revolution; not destabilization. We are stabilized, despite the fact that we’re ideologically fragmented and have institutions rotted to the core by capitalism. We are stabilized compared to many war-torn countries around this world.
Inviting insurrectionist planning is not rational for more reasons than I could list in this group chat. If you’d like to speak with some socialist combat veterans I know about this topic, I can put you in touch.
Anon #6: Gradualism isn't a rejection of the revolutionary option, just the understanding that it has to be put off, and that survival has to take priority.
Sire_26: And yes, that is a false dichotomy that was just created.
Anon #5: Sire_26 and I aren't talking about the same thing when we say the words "revolutionary option."
Sire_26, I feel like you're narrowing what I'm saying in a way I'm not doing to you x_x if you were to tell me we're going to be able to vote in/write into law socialism "in 2018", I'd say it isn't possible. As far as insurrection goes, it wouldn't be possible in 2018 either.
Neither are. Both are huge projects that would take years to get anywhere.
[And] btw yes, I did listen to Malcolm X's ballot or bullet. Just so happens that the guy advocates for black capitalism a lot in order to take better control of black communities. There's a lot to be said for historical context, and that thing you mentioned earlier about taking some things to heart, while leaving other things in the past.
Anon #3: I wouldn’t say Malcolm advocated capitalism, but rather black self determination.
Sire_26: Exactly. Malcolm X was anti-capitalism (there are quotes from him on this).
@[Anon #5], you’re kind of creating false dichotomies in your responses, and begging the question (a logical fallacy). We’re not talking about anything happening right this second. We’re talking about quite the opposite; gradualism.
There’s a stark difference between revolutionary changes to systems and a coup.
You’re entertaining the idea of a coup being a viable option in America. I’m saying it’s not an option right now, while many insurrectionists would insist on the contrary.
Anon #5: I'm not talking about a coup, personally. Coup implies like, "kill the president, and senators/legislators, take power from above" which isn't my point. It wasn't Fred Hampton's point, either, when he was advocating for collectivization of arms and weaponry. At the time, it was about defense. Defense of community, protecting self determination, that sort of thing.
Listen, this topic is complex and i'd rather talk about it than go point by point in writing, which i feel would take a long while. Plus, to be honest, reading back i feel like i kind of derailed the original point.
Conversations about amassing weapons vs. "how to revolution" are definitely not the same thing.
Anon #7: This topic is gonna properly get fleshed out on here.
Sire_26: I’m with you on the point about Fred Hampton (although it’s debatable), but even with the size of the police state now, “defense” has to take on an entirely different meaning when it comes to us protecting ourselves. I think we should be advocating for that on an individual/personal level, ya dig? But I’m not an idiot. I see what the BIE classification does. We saw what COINTELPRO did. We know the state has even more power now.
A coup is much more complicated, but it is violent uprising. Insurrection. Armed struggle. These are all aimed to achieve successful coups, or control of the state apparatus. When many use the word “revolution,” that is what they’re associating with it (in a practical sense). I’m saying the dynamics have changed; gradual revolution is real, but this does not mean we should be limiting ourselves – rather, reading the climate and accelerating the process whenever we can.
Again, this is “The Ballot or the Bullet” conversation.
We can def explore this via phone or Discord or whatever at another time. It’s an important conversation to have.
Sorry for the massive walls of text lmfao we might as well share these conversations at some point, they’re so long.
I would definitely say for everyone (myself included) that we all gotta sit with perspectives sometimes instead of jumping to respond so quickly. What’s most important is not winning a debate or argument or making someone think like you do, but rather figuring out what the truth (not “your” or “my” truth, but the objective* truth) is, and making the truth known.
Anon #5: yeah, agreed.
Sire_26: 💯💯💯
Anon #5: i don't mind walls XD i do a lot of reading in my free time
Sire_26: Ayyyeee you’re like me then lol I don’t mind either.
Quick correction, by the way. I had a typo in one of my earlier messages lol
“Internally, it was never socialist to begin with. From the infrastructure of the Bolshevik Party, to the later formation of the USSR. Vladimir Lenin advocated for and acknowledged* this (including state capitalism). The problem is that because of things like democratic CENTRALISM and the overall adherence to orthodox Marxist principles, the conditions were set for the totalitarian state to come to fruition under Stalin.”
HUGE typo/mistake lol
Here’s what I was referring to:
Anon #5: That does make more sense in context Democratic centralism sounds hugely problematic x_x
Sire_26: Very very. Actually read Lenin’s views on it, though. And peep what he did to the unions – 110% not true to Marxist ideology whatsoever (that’s why some people say Marxism-Leninism is an oxymoron).
Again, though, and this is the nuance – THEORETICALLY his method could’ve* made sense FOR THE TIME. That does NOT mean that it 1) applies today or 2) is actually Marxism/Socialism.
Anon #2: Can you explain the term Marxist-Leninism is they have conflicting views?
Sire_26: That’s a dense one, Tommy. If you hit the or @libcomorg primers on Marxism and Leninism separately, though (hell, even the Wikipedias), you’ll be able to start forming your own views on Marxist-Leninism. You cannot just take my word for it.
Lenin based his theories and strategies on the works of Marx, however in his practice (actions), he advocated for policies that were directly antithetical to Marx’s outlining of real* socialism. Does that make sense? Now for you or anyone else to see how that is, you have to really* dig into the history, as well as his writings. I’ve shared some good sources on it right now, but there’s much more to it all.
Anon #5: what about the idea of marxism that places the material realities of each circumstance within the context of relations of capital? I.E. We need to go from feudalism to capitalism, so we'll do state capitalism until we can get to socialism, because Lenin recognized that trying to jump from feudalism to socialism was unrealistic and wouldn't have functioned.
There was a bourgeoise consolidation of power, sure, but it might still be marxism in the context of trying to eventually get to socialism...?
Sire_26: Absolutely. If you see the string of tweets I shared earlier in our convo, this is me speaking to this as briefly as I can. [Marx rejected stagism towards the end of his life, so according to the logic of the "Marxist" dogmatist, this wouldn't be "Marxism."]
Also, please see Anton Pannekoek’s brief essay on this.
When we use the word “Marxism,” we’re talking about adhering [to] or working through Marxist theory. Someone can claim to be a Marxist, but we have to be looking at whether or not they’re being true to the theory in practice.
State Capitalism as a concept is not something limited to states like the USSR or PRC.
America is theoretically State Capitalist. It’s a shining example of State Capitalism. We just make the distinction with the USSR and PRC because under the guise of a “worker’s state,” there is really just a bloated bureaucracy of bourgeois who are enforcing capitalist principles (there’s still wage labor, etc etc etc – it’s not Socialism as explained by Marx – you can call it whatever you want, but it isn’t Socialism).
Lenin was an orthodox Marxist, which is why he used this argument you just outlined to advocate for rapid industrialization and the “holding pattern” until revolution took place elsewhere. But because of this, some people feel he was an opportunist (they’re pairing this approach with the fact that he advocated for highly centralized authoritarian state policies, and never enacted truly socialist policy internally from his position of power).
Check the sources out and keep reading if you can! We’ll be here all night if y’all are just going off of my word lol you have to verify everything I’m saying for yourselves in order to challenge it and/or reach your own conclusions.
Anon #3: I think while discussing Marxism/Leninism we shouldn’t recognize that Lenin applied Marxism to Russia’s specific conditions. Nobody even thought that Russia would be the country where revolution would occur, they thought the countries that were most industrialized with the largest proletariat (i.e Germany) would break the chain of capitalism.
But as I stated before, socialism represents an entire epoch of history, so to say that a state is not socialist because it has remnants of capitalism, aka wage labor, I think is false. Lenin and Stalin admit that for a period of time the Bourgeoisie is still more powerful than the proletariat. That’s why the state and dictatorship of the proletariat is so important, to suppress the bourgeoisie. Socialism is complex and looks different in different countries because of differ condition.
Cuba still has wage labor, but are we saying that Cuba isn’t socialist because of it?
Anon #5: whether or not we call countries "in the process of socialism" may or may not depend on whether or not we think those in power are currently sincere about attempting to move towards socialism, which is more belief based than anything else, even when we do have actions to point to that signify one way or the other.
Anon #3: A period of time after revolution the bourgeoisie is more powerful than the proletariat*
Sire_26: [Anon #3,] I addressed what you said in your first paragraph in my response earlier in this discussion, as well as tweets sent out a bit ago.
Cuba isn’t socialist. Maybe it is closer to real socialism than America, but it isn’t socialist. This isn’t even really something to debate. It’s a fact, if you call yourself a Marxist or at least go by Marxist theory. Whether you agree with Marxist theory or not is up to you.
There are no real examples of socialism that we can look back to within the last century (on a national level – we have tiny pockets of it in places like Spain, but again, not what Marx was talking about to scale). It just hasn’t existed yet.
Just because a state has parts of it that are socialist ... doesn’t mean that they have reached a truly socialist society, nor does it mean those in power actually intend on getting everyone to a socialist society (as [Anon #5] is hitting on right now).
Again, this comes right back to Marx. I’m not saying you all should read all 800+ page volumes of Das Kapital or something, but we have to have a grip on what he was talking about before we speak on Lenin. That’s the only way you get to see what’s true and what’s false. I study the economists and professors who have read Das Kapital front to back MULTIPLE times (personally); of course I read Marx excerpts and analyses myself as well. You have to at least try at some point to dig into this stuff, or else it’s just rhetoric and not facts.
"Critique of Gotha Program" is considered a “required reading” amongst hard left elitists lol I’m not gonna go that far with it, but I will say that it’s a great place to start.
We can speculate all day long about what all of these revolutionaries actually intended; the facts are the facts, though. We can see what did and did not happen. What has and has not happened. We can look at our challenges and the reality, and try to come up with realistic approaches that help us reach ... a communist society.
Anon #3: Bruh, Cuba is socialist lol I’ve been to Cuba, I’ve been to international conferences there, I’ve spoken to people. Ive been to lectures in Cuba BY Cubans about the economy, politics, etc.
Again, socialism is a PROCESS not a conclusion. To imply that Cuba isn’t socialist ludicrous to me.
Also, Cuba bring a socialist state 90 miles away from the the imperialist beast needs to be taken into context. To me, to imply that Cuba isn’t socialist is an ultra leftist argument. If it’s not socialist, then what is it?
You keep saying “reached true socialist society” implies that socialism is a process.
Sire_26: You could literally apply that same logic to America, and then argue that it is socialist, but to a lesser degree. Cuba is closer to true socialism as defined by Marx, but it just isn’t true socialism. I honestly don’t know what else to say. I’ve been as clear as I can be.
Is there no longer wage labor there? Do workers control the means of production there? If the answer to both of those questions is “no,” then it isn’t socialism as Marx explained it.
I definitely get where you’re coming from. You can call it whatever else you want and try to defend it and say it’s good, but it isn’t an example of a socialist territory on planet earth.
“It's in an awkward transitional phase between a state-driven socialism and state capitalism. There are already petite bourgeoisie in Cuba, such as taxi company owners, who make over $1,000 USD a month which is absolutely massive in Cuban terms where the average monthly salary is $25. There are still strong socialist and Marxist currents in the Cuban Communist Party, but Cuba has hinted towards a Chinese model of state capitalism with Raul frequently praising China. Like some social scientists on Cuba have commented, I suspect Cuba migrating fully to state capitalism to motivate the lifting of the embargo in exchange for American investments. The country is still very laudable and pretty pro-proletarian, but I don't think this will last.”
That’s the top comment in the thread I linked to. Explains it very simply and clearly.
I think places like Cuba need to be supported, of course. But we need real socialism. [People, not "places," need to be supported.]
Sire_26: And “state-driven socialism,” as that person put it, just means the state apparatus is being used to push for socialist programs or socioeconomic policy, but it’s not actually socialist in its structure because the workers don’t control the means of production lol
Anon #3: The reason that cab drivers make so much is because they have access to American dollars and tourism.
Sire_26: I gotta bounce for the day. I’ve said all I possibly can on this topic for now. I hope y’all get a chance to check out the resources and get back to me.
Anon #3: I think that we can critique any society, and Cuba isn’t exempt from this, but to say that Cuba ISN’T socialist is again, ultra leftist, and a bit misleading to me.
Also, ask the Cubans about their revolution and is their country socialist, and how they view themselves. They will tell you otherwise, despite what an online forum says.
The strides that the Cuban revolution made in nationalization of industry, land reform, social justice, economic justice, giving workers power, internationalism, etc etc speaks to their socialist revolution, despite how much we intellectualize it.
Sire_26: You’re saying a lot of things, but the key is in defining what “Socialist” is. Calling me or anyone else an “ultra leftist” for adhering to Marxist theory and over a century’s worth of development on this doesn’t speak to the root of the conversation.
Anon #3: Cuba did this in the face of constant imperialist aggression, sanctions, military aggression, etc etc etc, so to denounce them as not socialist because they don’t meet all of Karl Marx qualifications seems dogmatic and doesn’t take into account Cuba’s specific conditions. Not to mention Karl Marx was philosophizing about European society.
Sire_26: You’re acting like I’m coming at Cuba! I’m not trying to take away from their achievements. We’re talking about what is and isn’t socialism. If you want to take the word “socialism” and turn it into something else, then by all means go ahead. Marx isn’t god. He codified a foundation for socialism that Castro and countless others stated they wanted to stay true to. That’s the reality. So the convo is about whether they’ve stayed true to it or not. It’s really that simple.
Anon #8: socialism isn't defined by how much imperialist agression a country goes through
Anon #1: Word. Cant blame the USSR for being antagonized by America for an entire century. Who knows what might have manifested had that not happened.
Cant blame Cuba for Batista.
These are their material conditions.
Anon #3: But these are theoretical definitions, we’re talking about the struggle for socialism AGAINST imperialism and capitalism and their material conditions. I think it’s a lot more nuanced than some definition on paper, and as binary as “this is socialism, this is not.”
Anon #1: I agree. Its bigger than labels at the end of the day. Its war over resources.
Anon #3: Also, we should beware of the people/sources we read when it comes to socialism/communism or whatever. A lot of academics just intellectualize phenomena from the ivory towers of academia, and not even revolutionaries or involved in struggle.
They come a dime a dozen lol
Sire_26: But you’re talking as if we don’t have the written texts and communications of the actual revolutionaries, though. Their views and their experiences. We have all of it, so what are you really trying to say?
That’s a logical fallacy to start making generalizations about where potential* or perceived* sources of information are coming from instead of delving into what we’re actually speaking about. I perceive that as a diversion from the real crux of the conversation, which is actually defining “socialism.”
What you’re doing is revisionism, and the “ultraleft” argument is literally rhetoric. Let’s talk about the theory and the history here.
If you want to discredit Marx and go at Marx, then go at Marx, but that means you also have to reconsider your thoughts on what the actual revolutionaries claim, because all of them (for the most part) claimed to abide by Marx (as do most of the people here in this group chat). Fidel Castro is not exempt from this. That means his base and foundation was Marxism.
You have yet to address the points about socialism. You’ve just reiterated the sentiment that socialism is a “process” and that “ultra leftists” say that Cuba isn’t socialism; and you keep bringing up the challenges Cuba faced as if to imply that I think, because they haven’t achieved real socialism yet, the validity of their gains should come into question. I repeat: these are all logical fallacies.
I implore all who haven’t already done so to check out this guide to logical fallacies, so that you’re more familiarized with how they’re used to “win” arguments in the court of public opinion:
There’s more in-depth Wikipedia articles and YouTube videos on logical fallacies that we can find as well. Understanding these can help everyone in conversing constructively with others here.
Everything is a process. No one put anything into “binaries” by stating that Cuba isn’t socialist. It’s just assessing the conditions and seeing whether they, on a very fundamental level, fit the definition of socialism.
We have to know where we’re going and what it looks like in order to carve out the right path; this is the fundamental reality of the situation. We are assessing the reality of the situation.
Saying that Cuba isn’t a socialist country says nothing about whether or not they’re on the right path, or if the intentions of their leaders are in the right place. It’s just saying that they aren’t socialist.
Again, just because there are socialist institutions* and programs* in a country doesn’t make the country as a whole socialist. Because there is wage labor in Cuba, and because the government (state) – not the workers – control the means of production directly, it is state capitalism. It is not real socialism. This is something Lenin wrote and gave speeches about. This is something Trotsky wrote and gave speeches about.
The irony of the situation is – just as Trotsky predicted would happen with the USSR – Cuba is becoming more and more capitalist by the year, and it’s all connected to the nature of state capitalism.
Cuba identifies as a “Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic.” Of course, if you refuse to challenge that notion on any level, then you’re not going to find any value in this discussion in the first place, except in reaffirming what you already believe to be true. The base assumption of this dialogue is that you’re open to the other perspective; I’m doing my best to try and present that to you from a variety of sources here.
I seriously implore all of you to check out the Reddit threads I linked to in here, or Google search “Is Cuba Socialist? Reddit” and read all of these threads of people arguing about exactly this (for years). It goes on and on and on. I’ve read these discussions. I’ve studied the revolutionaries. I’ve moved through identifying with Marxism-Leninism, and then through identifying with Trotskyism, and on and on; to come to the understanding that I have now. It only came from educating myself and reading others’ countless arguments online, and studying the history from a variety of perspectives, constantly challenging what I knew to be true. This is dialectical materialism; not confirmation bias.
This is why I recommended Reddit to everyone the other day; if you want to visit this conversation with more people and debate it out, then feel free to head on over to /Socialism, and you’ll see the same exact arguments I’m raising brought up there, but probably without* sources. It’s a better forum than a Twitter group chat. Perhaps we could have these kinds of discussions on there; everyone can introduce conversation topics, and we can all comment in threads along with sources to our arguments.
I’ve at least tried to give you sources and proof for all of my claims. It’s all there in the writing; from to LibCom. At some point, we get to a place where we’re not addressing the core arguments anymore, and instead we’re resorting to ad hominem labeling, and begging the question.
If you keep reading, you will find the truth. The exploration can’t stop here in this group chat. We have to go on and keep learning. If scholars and people who have actually studied all of this stuff for longer than we’ve been alive and who can explain all of their views to you STILL can’t convince you off of verbal communication alone, then clearly there’s a misunderstanding on someone’s part.
For anyone who doesn’t believe me, here’s a Wikipedia page on the politics of Fidel Castro:
Here’s a Jacobin article on Cuba and Socialism and where they are headed:
Please excuse any typos.
Anon #3: You’re giving us jacobin and wiki articles about Cuba. I’ve read the history of Cuba, I’ve read Marx, I’ve been to Cuba and got educated by the Cubans on their political process and conditions. I can assure you that actually going to a country and seeing/studying things for yourself is more insightful than online discussion boards and articles from outsiders. I retain that you can criticize Cuba, but to say it ain’t socialist is wild. But as I stated before, Marx was philosophizing about Europe, not an island slave colony, so to say it’s not socialist cuz it doesn’t adhere to all of MARX’s credentials is a stretch. Gotta strongly disagree here.
Anon #1: This is good.
Hash it out.
Anon #5: Honestly, the more i think about the question "is cuba socialist?", the more i wonder what the value of the answer is. The answer definitely isn't the determining question of whether or not we're going to support the state as socialists. I don't think it's socialist per marx, for reasons that go from restaurants and taxis to reactions to capitalist embargoes. But, as a leftist, i'm definitely going to support their state and endeavors to move further left. I think dividing it in yes/no answers is reductive of a frankly complicated question.
Anon #1: As a human, i am proud of the legacy of both the ussr and cuba
Anon #8: i don't think one party states are compatible with any democratic notion of socialism. that's the main flaw of 20th century socialism.
Anon #9: [Twitter user was a philosophy professor who said something along the lines of, "You're being condescending, and telling people 'You're wrong because you haven't seen things as I have.' Also, you're making baseless statements, claiming that people are using logical fallacies when it's just your opinion." The Twitter user deleted their account, and so the record of their responses is no longer with us - this is a rough recall of what they stated, and is more likely than not partially inaccurate.]
Sire_26: Am I really saying “as I have”? And a logical fallacy is a logical fallacy. It’s a matter of fact; not opinion. My statements aren’t baseless. They’re right here for everyone to read and judge for themselves.
And I also second what [Anon #8] and [Anon #5] are saying.
Anon #1: also, through which institution would workers own resources if not the state or some form of state?
Sire_26: My biggest point is that there is no way this exchange alone is going to end with us agreeing on this. All I ask is that there are facts and sources brought behind your arguments that everyone here can also explore. And everyone should actually be exploring these sources before responding.
Anon #9: [Twitter user then said something along the lines of, "I'm a philosophy professor, bro; I teach people about logical fallacies for a living. I think I'd know what I'm talking about on this one lol"]
Anon #3: lol ^ honestly bro
Sire_26: You literally just used one:
I’m not trying to be disrespectful or discredit; I’m just about getting to the crux of an actual argument.
Anon #9: [Twitter user said something along the lines of, "LOL damn, you got it, you got it. I think I'm just gonna leave y'all to it then lol"]
Anon #8: the thing is workers don't control the cuban state. if they did then fine. i mean some anarchists don't want a state at all, but even by the classical marxist definition of socialism which Cuba claims a lineage to there is inconsistency.
And it's not just about definitions but if cuba is a capitalist state it changes our entire analysis. if there is resistance to the cuban state we need not to get into the stale "anti imperialist" analysis of it must be a cia plot
Anon #3: Workers control the state in Cuba.
Anon #1: Sounds socialist
Sire_26: Juridically, and on the surface, yes. But what about the bureaucracy that Trotsky spoke about? The bureaucracy that forms around that state apparatus? What of wage labor? What of the distribution of wealth? These are things you’re not addressing.
It’s like saying that America is a democracy. Juridically, yes. But there is that reality of capitalism that constantly encroaches upon and corrupts the legal processes we establish.
Everything you’re saying is argued against in that Anton Pannekoek article I linked to in here twice. Please, feel free to read it and respond to all of his points. He’s written extensively on this (in the early 20th century, mind you). That would be way more productive than us going back and forth here.
I challenge you to it. You can craft a Reddit post on it, and we can all respond in the comments. If you’re open to that.
Anon #3: I have addressed them. The first thing Cuba did when competing the revolution was land redistribution to the peasants, expropriated housed, land, property, nationalized industry. Free education, free health care, 95% of Cubans own their home, etc
I don’t have that much of an interest in proving if Cuba is actually a socialist state lol
Sire_26: Alright, cool.
Anon #10: Just read that whole argument. Lol
Sire_26: Hit dem links tho, fam. Dig into it! Let us know your thoughts.
submitted by Sire_26 to BlackSocialists [link] [comments]

[Table] IAmA: Hi, I'm Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Ubuntu & Canonical. Currently in the midst of a record-breaking crowdfunding campaign to make Ubuntu Edge superphone a reality. Ask me anything.

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Date: 2013-07-25
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Questions Answers
Will (parts of) the Ubuntu Edge be Open Hardware? So in this first generation Edge, no, we didn't look for open hardware specifically. We can choose silicon with more open drivers as we finalise the spec, but again I think the priority for the CPU / GPU will be performance to hit the goal of convergence.
will you release the physical dimensions as soon as it goes to production so we can easily 3D print cases and accessories for it? Yes, the specifications will be released as soon as they are final. Love the 3D printing movement, be great to get an accessory-printing meme flowing!
How will the 32 millions USD be spent? Will it all go to the hardware (including research/design etc), or is some of it going into the development of the software too? Software is covered by our existing efforts to bring Ubuntu to mobile, nothing more needed there. The crowdfunding is really what it costs to bring a device to market, it would be more if we were a major brand, $32m is pretty lean I'm told. Hope the actual cost doesn't exceed it or I'll be carrying that baby but hey it's worth the risk.
How will you address the privacy concerns on contemporary phones? We're entering a really interesting phase where in a sense our very own tools spy on us.
We will certainly have an easier time providing transparency on the origin of the code in the platform than, say, your average android device, where it's all a big hacky mush. The core OS which will be updated regularly on the Ubuntu phones is all traceable directly back to standard Ubuntu source and binary packages.
There will be a core piece on each phone which handles the hardware, consisting of kernel and drivers and firmware and interfaces to things like the radio. That's where unhealthy things could creep in from manufacturers and carriers. We can offer... constructive guidance there.
I'm curious about battery life of the Ubuntu Edge. How do you plan to make the battery last at least a full work day with such specifics? How long will the battery last when using the phone to drive a monitor? Edit: typos, damn autocarrot! We're hoping to blaze a trail with silicon anode batteries. Hopefully, that is the only blaze involved - a trail ;)
Hi Mark! My question: Heat seems to be a problem after long periods of time using my current smartphone. Will you try to choose a processor that can minimize this for long periods of time? As a convergent device, this and battery life is my biggest worry. We've done thermal modelling of the device (recognising that the processor options are still only guidance from the vendors). I think for this generation we want to go all-out for performance to get over the convergence hump - i.e. deliver a device that gives a good enough desktop experience when you hook it up via HDMI and a bluetooth keyboard.
But we are doing a lot of work on cooling off while you are not actually using it docked, so it doesn't warm up your pocket when you're not using it as a desktop!
How do you see yourself and ubuntu in the context of the surveillance programs? Will there be some kind of full disk encryption? Yes, we can to full disk encryption, thanks for the reminder and I'll suggest it to the team.
There were some concerns raised about the specs saying the Edge would have (at least) 4GB of RAM, although currently 2GB is the maximum amount of RAM a device is able to use with an ARM processor. What are your thoughts about this? Has this been carefully planned ahead, or is it more a find-and-solve-problems-along-the-way kind of project? I've been told by the CTO of a very big mobile silicon manufacturer they could do it.
Have you ever been approached by the NSA/ CIA / FBI regarding access to Ubuntu systems and what are your opinions for safe and secure OS'? PS much respect for all you've done for Linux via Ubuntu & your new phone project No, we've never been asked to support a surveillance campaign. We've been asked to provide data in support of specific criminal investigations (child abuse) would do so again. We would not comply with a mass surveillance or extra-judicial request, and we would challenge requests that we think are unwarranted.
Hi and thanks for your time. Will the Edge be covered by any warranties outside of the return policy? Also how long will the Edge be recieving software updates? We want to support the edge with updates to 14.04 LTS and then through the life of 14.04 LTS, which would be a total of 6 years.
Battery. When "docking" the Ubuntu Edge and using it instead of a PC/notebook, will an AC power supply be mandatory or will battery last for an "human" amount of time? Heat. Phone seems little, hardware is powerful, internal heat will be... too much, won't be? So what about cooling? Will I get my hands cooked like an hot-dog while using or recharging the Ubuntu Edge? I think when in PC mode you'll want a source of power, either a bigger battery in the screen / dock, or AC. But in mobile mode, we aim not to roast anything personal.
I've been a long time Ubuntu user. I believe Ubuntu is the best OS but I just feel like design coherence and stability is all over the place. I understand you're iterating fast but it seems like stability should be improving over the years, not the other way around. Also, it just doesn't seem like anyone is paying attention to the UI details like on a Mac (or even Windows now). Unity looks great but the new Nautilus is a mess, for example. Where's the UI coherence? What's going on with stability? Hmm... yes, Nautilus is tricky of course because of the source.
I do wish we could maintain full focus on both desktop and mobile, but I've asked the team instead to concentrate on touch, so more stuff is slipping through raw from upstream without going through the same level of integration/smoothing that we normally do. Crashes etc are still being addressed, but I agree there's more divergence in core apps than normal in 13.04.
If we're successful with the phone, then that platform becomes our core for desktop too, and it's really gorgeous, take a look.
Mark, do you plan to do something similar in the notebook sector? I miss premium haswell laptops which are well built like Macbook Airs and run Ubuntu out of the box without any problems and great battery life. I don't see US doing a notebook this way, but if we prove the mechanism of crowdfunding and crowdsourcing ideas and priorities for innovation, I bet someone else will.
Personally, I'm interested in convergence, the idea that I could be typing this on a keyboard + screen attached to my phone, with the brains being in the phone. So successive iterations of concept phones is where I'd like to keep our involvement.
Backers become part of a community that can share ideas and debate priorities. That's what we do on the Ubuntu software side every day, so I think it's a good fit.
Mr Shuttleworth, Has Canonical been approached by the NSA regarding access to Ubuntu One? No. I do have concerns that we have data in AWS and other US clouds which might be subject to PRISM. We're looking at a range of options to provide both security and also plausible deniability to users of Ubuntu who are surveilled.
Are there any other phone manufacturers preparing to launch phones with Ubuntu Mobile OS? There are several brand name manufacturers that have independently brought Ubuntu mobile up on their next-gen devices and presented that to carriers. No word yet on who might be first to go the distance, but I think that's pretty encouraging given it's off their own bat.
In what ways might alternate mobile OSes such as Ubuntu, Firefox OS and Tizen work together or share common technologies (in order to benefit consumers and each other)? We do have areas of mutual interest and overlap. But... it's hard, through no fault of any one party, to discuss and agree on every detail. So I'd suggest you consider diversity a value in itself and let us work it out. And thank you for backing the Edge :)
Why is the Ubuntu Edge not featured on the front page of It seems to me that you need to spread the word as far and wide as possible to hit that crazy high $32m target, so you ought to use all the channels that you have. Dude, the traffic is all on, but it's a good point nonetheless and I'll suggest it, thanks!
Do you not think this goes contrary to the very philosophy of open source software? Yet those very decisions made Ubuntu so popular.
I think breaking new ground requires a certain stubborn willingness to pursue an idea that is unpopular. Sometimes, that means stubbornly being wrong, and if one is afraid of being wrong, one will likely not break new ground.
How freakin awesome was space? Was it worth the preparation and money? Would you do it again? It was a real privilege. I do hope to fly again, but am waiting till it's feasible to get a bit deeper into the unknown than LEO.
So Mark, How much is a shuttle worth exactly? Life's too short to hit refresh on that number too often :)
Hello Mr.Shuttleworth, Although I am unfamiliar with Ubuntu (and Linux in general), I am excited to see it's popularity rise, as this means more competition, which creates better products. My question is: As someone who is an iOS user, why should I buy an Ubuntu phone? If you're interested in convergence between phone and PC, we'll do that first and imo best. If y ou're interested in accelerating the movement of new tech into the mainstream, the Edge is a very interesting new way to signal to Appe what you consider cool in hardware (and software).
Where would you recommend someone get started if they were interested in contributing to Ubuntu or similar? Will the Edge's "desktop" OS have as much functionality and compatibility as the current Ubuntu operating system releases when the phone is docked? What functionality will be lost when the phone is mobile? The best place to get started in Ubuntu depends on your personal interests. If you're a writer and speaker, work on docs and materials. If y ou're a designer, pick a new mobile app and help on the design.
For developers, there's loads of open space in the new mobile core apps. That's brought a lot of new developers to the project, and to QML, which is a fantatic development environment, native performance with JS / CSS ease of design. I'd suggest starting there, with an app that can scale from phone, to tablet, to PC.
Do you think South African tech entrepreneurs have to eventually leave SA to make it really big? Well, they certainly have to spend a lot of time on a plane :)
I was lucky with my first effort, Thawte, which was based in SA but didn't need much commercial infrastructure outside, it was all online. So the restirctive rules about global trading for South Africans didn't block that. But I couldn't do Ubuntu from SA, for example. Just recently half-won a constitutional case in SA to have some of those rules reconsidered, too early to know what the ultimate result of that will be.
Since the Ubuntu Edge will be dual booting Ubuntu and Android, can you say roughly how much of the 128GB storage on the phone will be available for user files? I think at least 120GB will be available for files.
By your best guess, about how much do you expect each edge to actually cost to produce? Our best guess is $32m for 40,000 devices, not counting the money spent to date on design validation. If we did more devices we could lower the price, but that would just make the campaign goals harder. And really, we want to focus on cutting edge tech, so setting too high a production requirement might limit us to stuff that's more conventional. Hopefully we found a good balance, you be the judge!
Hi, Mark. Will the Ubuntu Edge have all LTE bands or diferent bands in each antenna?, will it work with any LTE carrier in any country? No, it will be unusual in supporting TWO bands of LTE so it can work with LTE in both the US and EU, but it can't support every possible LTE carrier worldwide, the spectrum is just too fragmented at the moment. That's a real swamp we would like to help drain!
Idea for another donation tier: Mark Shuttleworth records you a custom voicemail. Would you do it? Sure, but I'm no Liam Neeson :)
Hi Mark, I am one of the first 5000 to purchase the phone! How will dual booting work? Like will both Android and the Ubuntu OS be running at the same time with the option to switch between the two without rebooting or no? Can we have an estimate of the clock speed of the CPU? Will the phone have the dock shown in the video included? You will be able to toggle what you boot - Ubuntu or Android. If you boot Android, then when you plug in a large screen, you'll have the option to launch ubuntu alongside it, as U4A.
Keep the Updates coming, very exited for 13.10 and Mir! More generally, I think this meme is a bit of sour grapes, and if we want Linux to evolve based on sour grapes, we'll all just have a bad taste in our mouths in the end :)
So do you... Sudo apt-get remove unity-lens-shopping. Or does Amazon get your search results also? When I want to search everything, I use the Super key. When I want to search just my local apps, I use Super-A. Duh.
Are you worried that the long lead time (due May 2014 if all goes well) and pre-published spec will allow competitors to catch up / overtake and essentially gazump the Edge? It's certainly possible that a particular feature might go into another phone, but the overall goal of a PC-class convergence devices is miles beyond anything the majors are looking to achieve, and I think the Edge will be the first by a long way to try.
P.s. I've bought one already. Good luck!! If we get it greenlighted, then I hope we bring forward the commercial adoption of some of those tech by at least a year!
Why Sapphire Glass instead of Gorilla Glass 3? Also, what will be the maximum resolution when hooked up to a monitor? Full HD is the baseline requirement for the external monitor, we may be able to do more depending on final silicon options.
Sapphire, is much harder and more scratch resistant than any glass. Much more expensive and hard to machine, too, but we think its worth pushing industry to develop mainstream processing and volume for it.
Can you comment a bit about the screen you're looking to use? IE: Why aren't other companies using sapphire screens? Cost, manufacturing difficulties? Thanks a lot, Ubuntu was my first experience with Linux. Cost mainly. They are in use in very, very expensive fashion phones. But we think the cost will come down if we can get more mainstream volumes and processing approaches, hence the push. No screen protector would be fantastic!
Hi Mark, firstly, love ubuntu. Secondly, the hardware is pretty hardcore, will you use a shrinking ray to fit it all in to the phone, or miniature atoms to construct miniature chips? My money's on the shrinking ray. It worked for my hairline, right?
If this campaign becomes successful in achieving it's target and the phone's delivered in 2014, will you consider the same model for other handsets going forward? Yes.
What would be interesting is to invite the backers of this generation not only to help finalise the spec of this generation, but also to help select the most interesting combinations of technologies for a future generation, on say an annual basis.
For this generation, we had to go find ideas. If we're greenlighted, I think we could invite companies with hot and cool tech for phones to present their ideas to the community, and have a crowdsourcing approach to the design of say, the Edge 2015.
Who is your inspiration? Mahatma Gandhi, Jan Smuts, Winston Churchill, Nelson Mandela. All flawed if you look closely enough, but that just makes me admire them more for what they did.
Mark, do you see the Edge as Ubuntu Phone's "Nexus" device? And would this device theoretically have an advantage over other Ubuntu Phones in regards to support/updates? In a sense, perhaps, yes. But the real idea we're trying to express is that a community can make better decisions than a single person. So in making the Edge, we're also forming an extension to the Ubuntu community that can help with designing next generation Edges.
Mainstream volume PC and phone manufacturer is really best served by the existing players, I don't want to compete with them, we'd lose! But we're better setup to be a mediator between enthusiasts and those manufacturers, which is at the heart of this campaign.
One common concern that has kept people from pledging is whether or not this phone will still be at the bleeding edge of technology in a year, when it is released. If this campaign is successful, how do we know other larger companies won't adopt these technologies in that time, and at a lower price-point (especially factoring in the potential earnings lost from tying up hundreds of dollars for a year)? Also, at what point before the release date will you nail down the product specifications? One of the selling points of the Edge is that it will revolutionize mobile computing. A big advantage of mobile computing for many is that it can be done while commuting, where one would not have access to a docking station, or any sort of peripherals. Here, laptops and tablets are quite useful. In what situations would one see a significant benefit in using the Edge for computing? Canada is notably absent from the list of regions in which you will "conduct interoperability testing" for the Edge. Especially because Canadian telecom is so notoriously monopolistic, do I need to worry about whether or not the Edge will work in Canada, especially if I'm not in a metropolitan region? I think the majority of people who ruin their phone screens do so by dropping and cracking them rather than scratching them. Crystals tend not to be ductile - especially thin sheets. A sapphire screen may be more scratch-resistant than gorilla glass, but won't it fracture easily? We have some visibility on what different companies will try in the coming year, and as a package, our best sources suggest that the Edge is waaay more ambitious than anything else.
How is Ubuntu's attempt at convergence different from others' attempts (Microsoft for example)? We'll be the first to have the FULL OS on all devices, not an embedded version of the OS. And what's cool for me is that same OS works on servers too (even ARM servers). So there's one flat platform everywhere for developers. Pretty cool.
Hello Mark! How confident are you that the Indiegogo campaign will reach it's goal? It's going to be really tough, we'll need the support of a very large community of enthusiasts. A great start, for sure, but that's like all the folks in tutus and bearsuits at the starting line of a marathon. The finish is a little, erm, sweatier :)
Since given the statistics, indiegogo's current funding record is $1,665,380 which was raised by Scandu Scout , where as Kickstarter's record is $10,266,845 for the Pebble smart watch , which is 10 times more that the former. Kickstarted has proved to be more successfull for large budget projects. So I'm delighted we have raised their record from $1.6 to $5.something (in 4 days!) and they deserve all the publicity and support they get a a result.
Does the Ubuntu Edge has a graphics technology for video games in the pc-mode? PS: Already bought one! We're working with a few different games publishers on both PC and mobile, so yes, I think gaming on the edge will be pretty radical. It should certainly raise the bar on mobile gaming because we'll have a LOT of RAM and first-class GPU.
off, wow, that edge looks amazing. question though: with the way this convergence is going, do you think eventually in the future, we will just have our superphones that replace our desktops and laptops? That's what we want to try!
Can you tell us if Indiegogo will be taking their usual cut from your drive? That would add up to something like $2 million wouldn't it? Yup, and IMO they will have earned it. There has been a great deal of work to make it possible to shoot for such a record, the Indiegogo team invested a great deal of thought into how it could work.
Is the main purpose of this to show off Ubuntu, or do you expect to stay in the hardware business if this is a success? If this gets greenlighted then I would like to expand the Ubuntu community to include hardware - crowdsourcing ideas for future iterations. But we'll stick to the concept-car side of things leaving mainstream production to our partners in the industry who do it very well.
So, our strength is communities, their stremgth is production and distribution, that's how we'll keep it.
One of the big unanswered questions about this device is the architecture being used. Intel's new bay trail looks really great in performance and power saving as well as allowing easy compatibility with Ubuntu software center purchases. Arm processors might be easiecheaper to come by as well as friendlier to the mobile side of this device. Arm, though, will require lots of work on canonical's side to make the full desktop side software supported by third parties. I personally think Intel's processor should be the one used, but if architecture isn't decided yet, what items are making the decision process difficult? We are waiting for two things - final specs and benchmarks, and a community of backers to help make that decision.
Why use crowd funding, is it due to a lack of interest from the large mobile operators? The dynamics of product planning inside large manufacturers drive for risk aversion - if a phone fails, it could take out the company or the team who planned it and took the risk.
Crowdfunding is interesting, because enthusiasts are INTERESTED in the next generation, they have an appetite for experimentation which large institutions lose. So the goal of this project is to reintroduce risk and innovation into mobile design, via crowdsourcing of both ideas and commitment.
As for interest in ubuntu - check out the list of carriers that have expressed interest, it's very convincing.
Mark, what are you expecting the battery life to be for the edge? And how about the weight? The goal is a full day of high-end use. If we can get more juice in, we'll use it for performance rather than multi-day battery life.
1) What happens to "phone" functions while using it "as a desktop"? Will we be able to make/answer calls and send/receive texts? 2) Is there any chance to have at least one of this features in the final product: hardware encryption, fingerprint unlock, dual sim, AC wifi, waterproofing...? Yes you can use the phone as a phone while it provides a desktop on a separate screen. Hardware encryption is a possibility, yes.
Any plans for wireless display WIDI? In future I think wireless will make sense for convergence. But the delay on WIDI is still several hundred milliseconds (a noticeable fraction of a second) so it feels like your desktop is in treacle. We'll try to bring that into a future generation if we can find a way to get the delay down.
I threw a few $$ your way because I think this is a great idea, but I can't afford the device itself at the moment. If you get the funding is there a chance that you will make more for retail availability at a later date? I'd love to buy one in a couple of months when my finances are a bit better. I really appreciate your backing - that's very generous. What might be a nice idea is to create a forum for backers who didn't go all the way to a device, to give them first shot at second-hand devices?
I want to say that I absolutely love that you guys are doing this. I'm so excited for this phone. I love Ubuntu and have been using the LXDE variant for several years now. As one of the backers for this project, I just want to know what the risks are if you do manage to reach the $32 million goal. How do you intend to handle a situation where it somehow doesn't work out? I will be on the hook. So I'm glad the team who put this together is made up of some of the best folks at Canonical, whove put a ton of their personal time into making it possible. I am happy to out on that limb for them, and the backers.
So far, the Edge (and the Ubuntu convergence strategy in general) seems to focus on the two ends of the convergence spectrum: The mobile phone and the full-blown desktop station (i.e. phone connected to screen & keyboard). What are your ideas for the use cases in between, where more mobility is wanted but the phone itself doesn’t provide enough comfort? I’m thinking about the cases where you’d traditionally use a laptop or a tablet. Do you already have a clear vision of how a single device can be used for all those situation, i.e. is this already part of your convergence vision or something you’d expect to figure out later? Yes, the phone will definitely be able to drive a touch screen in tablet mode, too!
Bought in at the Founder Sale level and am really excited. Can you talk about the new battery technology, what makes it exciting and how long a phone should last on a charge with use? Heh, I can tell you what the LAB results are but not yet what real-world results will be. This is one of the areas where we are hoping to accelerate technology into mainstream production that will benefit all classes of device, not just phones.
The two areas of interest are first, the use of silicon rather than carbon in the structure of the battery, and second, the choice of electrolyte.
In the video on the Indiegogo site, it is mentioned that this project isn't necessarily about mobile phones, but about the innovation of convergence between mobile and desktop. My question is, with other mobile devices such as tablets and wearable tech, why did your team decide to go with mobile phone development? What better way to prototype wearables than with a mobile PC to power them?
As far as I understood, the phone will support MHL which gives out 5V and hopefully has enough power to power the phone when used as a "desktop" That's correct.
That's a very good idea. I'm sure many of the existing backers are happy to add another $20-30 to get a t-shirt with the phone. At least I know I am! Yeah, we could add some perks for folks showing support - good idea, thank you!
This, and smartphone accessories like mhl docks, backup batteries, etc. Both Edge buyers and owners of existing smartphones buy a lot of these anyways, so why not get one for a good cause! We did consider specifying a range of accessories - gaming, PC form factor, ultra-mobility stations, but decided to focus on the core device and let others build ecosystems around it. The connection is standard MHL which means it should be straightforward for folks to support, and more interesting to crowdsource ieas than for us to try and do it all.
I do think that the Edge coud be the heart of a whole wave of innovation - once you have a real PC in your pocket, who knows what entrepreneurs will build around it? Or kids with ideas from high school to MIT?
What audio chip are you planning on using. Wolfson would be great for best sound quality (they made an excellent premium chip recently) so Edge can be used as an audiophile-quality music player. We are looking for audiophile silicon, but the harder thing I'm sweating about is speakers. We haven't found anything that looks like a potential breakthrough, any suggestions?
I just wanted to say thanks for Ubuntu. Appreciate that - glad it's helpful for you!
Mark, Do you plan to use new wireless charging technologies in the edge, like for instance Link to (which has been proven already 4 years ago). We considered it and decided it would make the device too thick (because we are already pushing the limits on storage, RAM etc). In a future iteration I would like to do both wireless charging and wireless display for untethered convergence, but that's Not Ready Yet, even for the crazy people.
This is an Open Device, so users can tinker with the software and use standard flashing tools to upload custom builds. And I hope they do!
Thanks for the information! I sent them an email as soon as Ubuntu Edge indiegogo was announced, but I haven't got anything back yet. Let's hope they aren't locked in to that decision. That's good feedback. I would prefer a replaceable battery too so will take it up with the team and see if we can make that work.
The SDK has been available as daily builds since Ubuntu Touch was announced earlier this year, and it just recently reached a beta release stage: Link to ^ that ;)
FYI, the non-upstream patches unity depends on are basically listed here Link to that list, however, includes even too many things to have a basic unity experience (i.e. there's not real dependency on lightdm or unity-web-apps; while some other patches are now upstream). Yeah, it's total FUD that we make it hard for people to support Unity. It's a fast-moving project, sure, but it's always been hard to keep up with those, and the main reason for Unity not being on say Fedora or SUSE is imo political rather than technical. We've taken patches from various folks to ease their efforts in bringing Unity to other distros and would gladly take more - many eyes etc. Similarly for Mir, we think it's important to have at least two great efforts to bring next-gen display to the free ecosystem, we think Mir has real advantages over the alternatives, and would love to see it more widely adopted. Are starting to see projects support it and feedback is they love the APIs and we love the opportunity to get more feedback!
I talked also with some debian devs and there is some intrest in providing unity on it.
Mark, Some people are suggesting that the Edge Indiegogo campaign was launched because the Carrier Advisory Group wouldn't fund the project. Please comment on the reasons for choosing the crowdfunding model. We certainly didn't ask the CAG to fund it.
Last updated: 2013-07-29 17:01 UTC
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