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Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
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HOW TO FIND STRONG SUPPORT AND RESISTANCE LEVELS

For those of you who don't have the foggiest idea about, here's a straight-to-the-point brief training on what backing and obstruction is.

Initially, we should take a gander at a case of a very much characterized dimension of opposition on the GBPUSD:
This is the latest (in respect to the season of this post) outline from the GBPUSD pair. Each 'Tom, Dick and Harry' far and wide will know about this dimension @ 1.29 – 1.29100 ('hound zone').
A dealer will allude to a value level as obstruction if cost is either returning to a dimension that has been tested previously or like the precedent above, is presently coming up to 'check' old help. In the model above on GBPUSD, in the event that cost pivots back up toward this dimension at 1.29-.1.291, at that point we can think about this as the first pinch of opposition. This is a direct result of the old help (which is featured in the blue box) and that cost is bullish into the dimension. On the off chance that cost was bearish into a dimension of equivalent criticalness like this, at that point we'd allude to it as help (once more, similar to what we've seen sketched out in the blue box).
Backing and obstruction is an inherent piece of any monetary market. They're characterized by market members (you and me) and is a dimension in which free market activity (otherwise known as request stream) quickly moves. It's where the bulls and bears impact and as a total, the triumphant side wins. It's where the market is nearly in an accommodating or receptive point as purchasers or merchants respect their counterparties.
For what reason is backing and opposition helpful to your exchanging?
In the precedent on GBPUSD above, realizing that 1.29 – 1.291 was already huge help, we're ready to set 'traps' in expectation that if GBPUSD returns to this dimension, we're prepared to respond. Said another way; we're needing to know about key potential defining moments to limit the hazard and augment our reward however much as could be expected. What I'm alluding to here in exchanging is known as "R products" however that is for another article.
On the off chance that we can feature a noteworthy dimension of help or obstruction, at that point we know where an ideal passage point in the market is.
As this is an optional procedure, we should know about a couple of things while thinking about a dimension as huge or not. This is on the grounds that in spite of the fact that this is definitely not a reasonable science, we can in any case recognize some basic rationale.
The most effective method to discover critical help and obstruction levels
Let me set out the expansive tenets from what I've seen over almost 10 years in Forex:
Cost doesn't turn on a dime.
They're not exact dimensions but rather 'ranges' or 'zones'
Higher the time allotment, the more solid
The more a dimension is 'checked' with hardly a pause in between, the more likely it is to break
'Separation influences the heart to become fonder'
On the off chance that cost repulses from a noteworthy dimension for an extensive stretch in time, that dimension turns out to be progressively huge to penetrate on the first return to.
Dividing from each pinnacle/trough is essential
Concentrate more on the nearby cost of each bar while assessing a dimension
Backing and obstruction levels are bound to break amid higher fluid occasions of the day.
Entire numbers hold more intrigue – for example 1.2300/1.2000 (Carol Osler Ph.D. composed a drawing in distribution on small scale structure of Forex).
By and large, what can make your life simpler in finding these dimensions is to look on the "line chart" on Meta-broker 4. This will demonstrate to all of you the nearby costs of each bar.
Once more, this is the every day time span on the equivalent GBPUSD diagram. You can see that I am not searching for impeccable dimensions where cost has turned on a dime yet I am generally adjusting to the expansive focuses above.
Get into the daily schedule of illustration critical and clear dimensions of help and opposition. It not just serves you in monitoring 'obstacles' or levels in which cost may battle, however more critically how you can be set up to exchange these dimensions if and when cost returns to them.
Contact: https://hawksfx.com, +44 208 638 8973.
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Using "Insane" Leverage to Outrun BTC Volatlity When Trading Stocks/Bonds/Forex/Commodities

TL;DR ![1BTC levered 1100x thin forex profit chart with 40 drop in BTC prices](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1BTC_levered_1100x_thin_forex_profit_chart_with_40_drop_in_BTC_prices.png)
Even with the price of the underlying BTC dropping almost in half... Net of all transaction, transmission and leverage fees... Even with not the fattest in profits (well, maybe fat for a forex trader)... This trader was able to eek out a 8.1% profit exiting the trade. The ability to leverage "insane" can insulate the winning trade from normally deadly levels of BTC volatility and price fluctuation.
An employee at Veritaseum asked me a very simple, but initially perplexing question last night. He said, "_All other parameters being equal, what's the difference between an order with 10 BTC principal at 1x leverage and 0% collateral, and an order with 1 BTC principal at 10x leverage at 900% collateral?
Well, to answer that question, I want to direct everyone to our trade modeling spreadsheet (which definitely comes in handy when designing more complex trade setups and fleshing out less than obvious ideas). What I did to answer his question was to create the two trades independently using a forex setup. The first trade setup looked like this:
![1BTC levered 9x thin forex profit](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1BTC_levered_9x_thin_forex_profit.png)
The trade looked like this at expiration (remember these are illustrative results, not necessarily or accurately indicative of actual trade results for a whole lot of mumbo jumbo legal reasons):
![10BTC thin forex profit](http://ultra-coin.com/images/10BTC_thin_forex_profit.png)
This what the trade would have resulted in if we used 1BTC as the principal, 9 BTC as collateral and 10x leverage, which would have effectively given you the same amount of purchasing power with the same amount of capital committed.
![1BTC levered 9x thin forex profit chart](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1BTC_levered_9x_thin_forex_profit_chart.png)
This is what would have happened to both trades above if BTC prices were to drop by a whopping 40% before the trade ended, but after the trade began...
![1BTC levered 9x thin forex profit chart with 40 drop in BTC prices](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1BTC_levered_9x_thin_forex_profit_chart_with_40_drop_in_BTC_prices.png)
Yes, that would hurt, and it would hurt a lot! That chart was one of the biggest objections given to me about the new UltraCoin trading system, the need to be exposed to bitcoin volatility in order to trade. But, there's gold at the end of this rainbow. Check out what happens when we drastically ratchet up the leverage to levels insane! At 1,100x leverage, look at what happens to that same 1BTC trade with 9BTC collateral when winning a thin forex profit...
![1BTC levered 1100x thin forex profit chart with 40 drop in BTC prices](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1BTC_levered_1100x_thin_forex_profit_chart_with_40_drop_in_BTC_prices.png)
That's correct! Even with the price of the underlying BTC dropping almost in half... Net of all transaction, transmission and leverage fees... Even with not the fattest in profits (well, maybe fat for a forex trader)... This trader was able to eek out a 8.1% profit exiting the trade. The ability to leverage "insane" can insulate the winning trade from normally deadly levels of BTC volatility and price fluctuation.
If you don't believe me, look at the same trade setup, except in all cash with 1,100BTC and no leverage or collateral...
![1100BTC levered 1x thin forex profit chart with 40 drop in BTC prices](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1100BTC_levered_1x_thin_forex_profit_chart_with_40_drop_in_BTC_prices.png)
I don't want anyone to think that insane leverage is a panacea, or even safe, for novice traders - but as you can see it does have its uses. I want to remind everybody that the leverage used is bounded (both on the profit and the loss side) by the principal+collateral posted. These next 4 charts tell the story. Look at the trade setup up wtih a 20% gross gain - levered 1,100% and unlevered (this is explicitly unlevered to illustrate a point, not the same purchasing power being put upfront in cash as modeled in the other examples above).
![1100BTC levered 1x with 20 forex profit chart with no drop in BTC prices](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1100BTC_levered_1x_with_20_forex_profit_chart_with_no_drop_in_BTC_prices.png)
As you can see, we profits are bounded by the capital sent to the blochchain as escrow (you get a maximum of what you and your counterparty have agreed to commit to the transaction - and not necessarily 20% of the face price of the profit x 1,100%). Similarly, your losses are capped in the same fashion.
Just for education's sake, this is the same trade with the entire amount put up as principal and no leverage or collateral.
![1100BTC levered 1x with 20 forex profit chart with no drop in BTC prices real](http://ultra-coin.com/images/1100BTC_levered_1x_with_20_forex_profit_chart_with_no_drop_in_BTC_prices_real.png)
Basically, after fees, you get a little less than 1/4th the return, while having to commit a lot more capital.  
These trading concepts should come in handy this year when we tackle things such asthe Danish National Bank (their central bank) telling us things that Reggie just doesn't believe are sustainable. Feel free to reach to me personally if you have any questions. 
submitted by Reggie-Middleton to BitcoinDerivatives [link] [comments]

79. The Difference Between Over the Counter (OTC) and ... Personal Finance in One Minute - YouTube Forex Signals EUR/USD - M1 - M5 - M15 - M30 - H1 - H4 What is ALTERNATIVE TRADING SYSTEM? What does ALTERNATIVE TRADING SYSTEM mean? Foreign Exchange Rate Risk - YouTube

Counterparty Definition. The opposite party in a bilateral agreement, contract, or transaction. In the retail foreign exchange (or forex) context, the party to which a retail customer sends its funds; lawfully, the party must be one of those listed in Section 2(c)(2)(B)(ii)(I)-(VI) of the Commodity Exchange Act. A counterparty is the opposite party in a financial transaction. This means that both parties in a transaction can be referred to as a counterparty. Entering into a contract with a counterparty generates what is known as counterparty credit risk. Counterparty Definition. A Counterparty is the opposite party in a currency transaction. If you are the buyer, the counterparty is the seller, and vice versa. The primary risk concern for both parties is will your respective counterparty live up to his settlement obligations by either delivering good funds or good title. In many circumstances, the counterparty in a financial transaction is ... Reversible Swap: An exchange of cash flows that allows one counterparty to use a swaption to switch the payor and payee of the fixed and floating rate income streams. The counterparty who is ... Definition Counterparty The opposite party in a bilateral agreement, contract, or transaction.In the retail foreign exchange (or forex) context, the party to which a retail customer sends its funds; lawfully, the party must be one of those listed in Section 2(c)(2)(B)(ii)(I)-(VI) of the Commodity Exchange Act.. Counterparty Risks Foreign Currency Inter-bank Exchange (FOREX) instruments are ... Retail forex counterparty Retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (1) A national bank; (2) A retail foreign exchange dealer; (3) A futures commission merchant; and (4) An affiliated person of a futures commission merchant. Source. 12 CFR § 48.2. Scoping language In addition to the definitions in this section, for purposes of this part, the following terms have the same meaning as ... Retail forex counterparty Retail forex counterparty includes, as appropriate: (1) A banking institution; (2) A retail foreign exchange dealer; (3) A futures commission merchant; (4) An affiliated person of a futures commission merchant; and (5) A broker or dealer registered under section 15(b) (except paragraph (11) thereof) or 15C of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o(b), 78o ... Definition of: Counterparty in Forex Trading The opposite party in a currency transaction. If you are the buyer, the counterparty is the seller, and vice versa. Forex (FX) is the market where currencies are traded and the term is the shortened form of foreign exchange. Forex is the largest financial marketplace in the world. With no central location, it ... Counterparty The counterparty is the person who is on the other side of an OTC trade. For retail customers, the dealer will always be the counterparty. Cross-rate The exchange rate between two currencies where neither of the currencies are the US dollar. Currency pair The two currencies that make up a foreign exchange rate. For example, USD/YEN ...

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ALTERNATIVE TRADING SYSTEM meaning - ALTERNATIVE TRADING SYSTEM definition - ALTERNATIVE TRADING SYSTEM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org ... A foreign exchange swap or currency swap is a contract under which two parties agree to exchange two currencies at a set rate and then to re-exchange those c... Understand the risks and opportunities associated with trading foreign currencies #IHub #InternationalHub https://internationalhub.org/video/foreign-exchange... Counterparty Risk (Default Risk) Explained in One Minute by One Minute Economics. 1:28. Zero-Sum Games and Win-Win/Lose-Lose Situations Compared in One Minute by One Minute Economics. 1:22. The ... Purchase Forex Signals Pro Indicator License today. Life time unlimited pairs working on all time-frames; sound alert working on all time-frames; also all updates will be free next 2 years. Write ... Practice trading with a free demo account: http://bit.ly/IT-forex-demo3 View full article: http://www.informedtrades.com/20797-difference-between-exchange-tr... Counterparty Risk (Default Risk) Explained in One Minute by One Minute ... The Foreign Exchange Market and Forex Trading Explained in One Minute by One Minute Economics. 1:25. Credit Scores and ...

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