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A New Perspective on Happiness
" 'No one sits down [for therapy] and says, ‘Are you happy?’' says Candice Ferguson, who is running for a Colorado state representative seat. “They say, ‘Are you sad? Are you depressed? Are you whatever.’ But no one tries [to] say that you’re going to be happy during your treatments, or once they’ve sent you on your way.'
Ferguson, who was sexually abused as a child and lived on her own before she graduated from high school, had a series of miscarriages in her 20s. She started having panic attacks. She sought a psychiatrist and was prescribed medication — now, at 43, she continues with therapy to maintain her health and is speaking publicly about her mental health history for the first time.
She prefers not to view her well-being in terms as stark as being happy or not, which she feels can set up those with mental health issues for failure. 'Happiness is a dangerous carrot to dangle,' she says.
Among those living with mental illness, there’s a shared experience of your health being judged by whether or not you seem “happy.” Despite the increasingly popular refrain that everyone should be in therapy, many still think of therapy as something you need when you’re not content with life.
'I’ve had people tell me, ‘Oh, but you always seem like such a happy guy already,’' says Vardaan Arora, a 27-year-old New Yorker who has obsessive-compulsive disorder. 'But even if someone presents as quote-unquote happy, it doesn’t necessarily mean anything. And also, you can have a mental illness, and have bad days, and still have good days.'
It’s a popular myth that mental health and happiness exist on the same side of a binary. Depression in particular is portrayed as the opposite of happiness — but happiness is an emotional state, and its opposite is sadness. Depression, like other mood disorders — and anxiety, psychotic, personality, eating, and substance-use disorders — is a health condition; the opposite, aside from never developing anything to begin with, is symptom management. 'I mean, happiness is not something you learn about in medical school,” says James Murrough, director of the depression and anxiety center at Mount Sinai’s school of medicine in New York City. 'It’s not even in our vernacular. It’s nothing we consider.'
Murrough says people will often refer to antidepressants as 'happy pills,' a premise that makes no sense to clinicians. The ideal outcome of antidepressants isn’t happiness, but a return to the patient’s baseline level of functioning, or at least a reasonable approximation.
It’s a small irony that the demographic assumed to be furthest from happiness seems less clinically and personally preoccupied with reaching it, since the rest of the country’s scheming to optimize happiness continues apace. Among the general public, happiness is a whole industry now, churning with self-help gurus and college lectures and annual UN reports and a fetishized understanding of yoga. Of course, the kicker is that for all that expended energy, we’re only getting less and less happy.
People who live with mental illness do have longer odds on experiencing happiness than their healthy counterparts, but this is because they have more limited access to care. Compared to doctors in all other specialties in the US, psychiatrists are the least likely to accept insurance, and the options for those without private coverage are generally the thinnest of all. Mental health in this country is a luxury, and luxury is only for the wealthy.
It is inordinately difficult for even people of relative privilege, such as Ferguson and Arora, to access the basic levels of care that allow them to experience happiness, and often functionally impossible for lower-income Americans like Val Phillips, a 51-year-old farmer in Colorado.
“I’m on Medicaid, and used a public health option for most of my treatment, so we had to rewrite goals every three to six months,” Phillips says. She began having panic attacks in her late 20s, after her mother died. At 43, she attempted suicide.
After that, she began seeing a therapist regularly, and got a formal diagnosis of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. She’s tried Elavil, overdosed on Klonopin, and currently takes Prozac and Wellbutrin daily, plus Vistaril as needed for panic attacks. But she says cognitive behavioral therapy and EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, which involves recalling traumatic events while simultaneously tracking hand movements your therapist makes, sort of like you do at the eye doctor) have helped her the most.
'Initially it was just moving me away from suicidal ideation. Then it became specific positive changes in my relationships, work life, and general health management. I cannot recall happiness ever being a goal.'
People who’ve been through some form of mental health treatment might be less susceptible to the mirage — that sustained happiness can and should be our default state — because they’ve been taught to approach emotions as being inherently impermanent for everyone, in a way that, say, chronic illness is not. There’s less of an expectation that you’re striving for happiness at all times.
'Part of therapy is helping people to be less phobic or afraid of their emotions' says Andrew Kuller, a senior behavioral health clinical team manager at the Harvard-affiliated McLean Hospital. 'To recognize that they’re going to pass, and it’s okay to feel whatever it is they’re feeling.'
All the major emotions play an important role in our emotional lives, in giving us complexity and depth. Happiness is a healthy emotion. So is anger. Sadness is healthy and can facilitate real connection, and bears little resemblance to depression — which is not healthy, and often not so much like feeling sad as like feeling nothing. Yes, doctors want you to feel happy; they want you to feel.
For people like Arora, that’s a better goal. Arora was diagnosed with OCD in 2012. He’s tried Prozac, Lexapro, Anafranil, talk therapy, and exposure and response prevention therapy — exposure to something that triggers you, followed by prevention from completing the compulsive ritual with which you cope.
'With OCD, so much of your time is spent ruminating on what may happen in the future, or what may have happened in the past. Life just sort of goes by you, and you’re not really living in the moment,' Arora says. 'To me, happiness doesn’t even have to be all the good things. I want to experience the bad things too, y’know?'"
submitted by Qigong90 to sgiwhistleblowers [link] [comments]

Benefits of ThisOption

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Official links for more details,
Website Link :
Thisoption binary exchange :
Whitepaper Link :
Twitter Link :
Telegram Link :
ANN Threads Link :
Facebook Link:
Youtube Link:
Medium Link:
Bitcointalk Username : priyapolypro
My Bitcointalk Profile Link :;u=2355878
submitted by lawnmowerreview to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments] Review: 2%-3.5% each working day for 50-75 working days is a high yield investment program which provides long term deposit plans. It started on 26th May 2020. You can get 2%-3.5% each working day for 50–75 working days, this program provides profitable rewards for promoters. I listed it into Standard listing. My first withdrawal request was already processed successfully into my PerfectMoney wallet yesterday. Now let me introduce it to you.
Started: 2020–05–26
My Deposit: $200
The amount of 200 USD has been withdrawn from your account. Accounts: U3869878->U21524869. Memo: Shopping Cart Payment. . Date: 13:10 19.06.20. Batch: 319883157.
Investment Plans
Invest $30–5000, earn 2% each working day for 75 working days and principal included
Invest $5001–10000, earn 2.25% each working day for 70 working days and principal included
Invest $10001–20000, earn 2.5% each working day for 65 working days and principal included
Invest $20001–100000, earn 3.5% each working day for 50 working days and principal included
These are all the plans provides. Since trading takes place only 5 days a week, you will receive return on investment from Monday to Friday. I think the most suitable plan is the first one for all investors, because you only need $30 to start your investment journey. Let me take an example:
if you deposit $100, then you can earn 2% daily from Monday to Friday, and you can withdrawal or reinvest the money at any time as your willings. After 75 working days, you will earn $150 totally and initial deposit included. That is to say, your net profit will be $50.
Promotional Rewards
Referral Bonus
Existing clients can earn referral bonus by introducing new clients. pays 10% referral bonus if the person whom you have referred makes a deposit. Referral bonus is paid instantly. Even the accounts that are not having active deposit are eligible to get referral bonus. The referral bonus will be credited directly to the E-wallet upon the completion of the registration and investment process of the members present down the line.
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Binary matching bonus will be credited only to the accounts with active deposits. Binary matching income is calculated every 24 hours. Please refer the binary chart for different binary matching slabs.
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If you register through my personal link, then 10% of your deposit amount will be transferred back to your personal wallet. So don’t forget to submit your RCB request from top menu section on my website, I will transfer the money to you once admin processes my withdrawal request.
Payment Options accepts PerfectMoney, Payeer, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, BitcoinCash. Please remember that Bitcoin Payment takes 6 Confirmation in Blockchain. After Bitcoin deposit, it might take anywhere from 1 minute to 3 hours for the funds to be credited in your Vertex Trades account.
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The withdrawal processing time after withdrawal request is 48 hours, and the minimum withdrawal amount is 10 USD. charges a total of 10% withdrawal fee while transferring the funds from Vertex Trades E- wallet to your e-currency account. However, no fee is charged for internal transfer, i.e., transfer of funds from one Vertex Trades Account Balance to another Vertex Trades Account Balance, so you can use the internal transfer instead of withdrawal function to save the 10% fee. But remember that only use this function with your trusted friends to keep your money safe.
Whois Information
Domain Registration: 2020/01/23–2023/01/23
IP Address:–1,541 other sites hosted on this server
IP Location: California — Menifee — Sucuri
ASN: AS30148 SUCURI-SEC, US (registered Feb 13, 2015)
Summary runs its website on an original template, and it now supportes 20 languages. Like most projects, admin also registered a UK company called “VERTEX TRADES LTD”, and you can check its certificate clicking here. From its investment plan, we can know that its profit is not too high, but from its promotional rewards, we can see profitable rewards for promoters. From the picture below, we can see that there is only 8 monitors although it has already operated for 92 days, maybe admin has his own promotional methods.
If you have more questions, you can contact admin through its online chat box or the contact info I wrote below.
Contact Info
[email protected]
submitted by vipinvestor1988 to u/vipinvestor1988 [link] [comments]

[21yo] This is my financial story. Any suggestion for the next movement?

At first i wasn't sure about posting this because my context isn't the one of someone in a first world country, but hopefully you can still give me some advice or insight.
I live in a country of south america with a financial crisis going on due to the highest hyperinflation in the world. Two years ago I was living alone and studying in college, but suddenly my father lost his job so I moved back home and enrolled in another university while working part-time. After a while the crisis increased and he decided to move abroad so he could help us with more money. Unfortunately that didn't work for him, at the end he decided to settle there and is living his life with a minimum wage paycheck to paycheck.
On the other hand, due to the situation I had to stop college again to work full time in the company, teaching in a private languages institute. I considered myself kind of lucky because i was making one way more than many professionals here and certainly more than I could have made trying to find another job with my curriculum. It was ok because I was earning in dollars and most of jobs were paying with the national currency, which is literally nothing.
So, I spent 2019 like that; working hard, got a promotion and was earning almost enough to pay all the basic bills in my household, but feeling completely miserable because of how demanding and time consuming it was in comparison with what I was earning, which was around $350 dollars a month. Take into account that I don't have to pay rent and all the services here are extremely cheap.
On december I was expecting to get paid something for vacations but it didn't happen so I tried an idea online and made $700 in a week (merely luck) so I just spent the whole month resting and enjoying life again. During those days made the decision to quit, but on january they offered me managing a department and i accepted because I thought that it would be useful to have that experience. Then again, I was selling my soul to the devil because I had to wait a while until I could start working as the manager.
Now we get to the present: covid-19 happened and the company stopped working since quarantine started. That job was my only source of income. I was living week to week with $45 and I didn't have any money in that moment. So the first day of quarantine I quickly started to work online, set daily and weekly goals. First week made $160 and closed the month with $795 as savings in my account. I spent $80-$100 weekly.
So, first week of next month was good, I hit $1200 and i decided it was a good moment to invest. I enrolled in a trading academy for $235 to learn and work with binary options, they also have a network marketing system but I'm not into that. Just started a few days ago, up until know i've just been studying about it.
I'm very good at saving money, but I just want to try to make more money online and then invest it. So, here are some of my questions:
1) being in my position, would you invest money in something?
2) do you consider it's better for me to bring some products from china and then running an online business here In my country?
3) would you move abroad?
submitted by hazeldous to povertyfinance [link] [comments]

Money Diary: $125K salary in NYC

Occupation: Senior Data Analyst
Industry: Media
Age: 32
Location: Brooklyn, NY
Salary: $125,000 + discretionary annual bonus
Paycheck Amount (Weekly): $1,445
Gender Identity: Non-Binary (AFAB - generally presenting as a woman)
Monthly Expenses (my portion)
Rent: $1,100
Transit: $80 (pre-tax)
Utilities: $50-80 (varies by time of year)
Internet: $0 (spouse pays)
Phone: $0 (spouse pays)
Gym: $27
Therapy: $700 (will go down once deductible is hit)
Health/Dental/Vision Insurance + FSA: $690 (pre-tax: I cover both of us)
Renters’ & Non-Owner Car Insurance: $0 (spouse pays)
401(k): $0 (awaiting eligibility - my company gives 2% match, so minimum will be 4%. It will most likely be a much higher percentage once my spouse starts work and I can stop paying benefits.)
Netflix: $0 (spouse pays)
Spotify: $0 (spouse pays)
Hulu+: $44.99
Student Loans: $300
Savings Accounts (Emergency, Personal Care/Misc, Annual Renewals, Travel & Gifts): $1280 (my portion)
Other Debt Payments (we have some 0% credit cards and built a payment schedule accordingly): $860 (my portion)
Investments: ~$25 (I use Acorns, a spare change investing app, to invest a modest amount a little at a time. My brokerage activities are severely limited due to my spouse’s occupation, so this is one of the few ways I can invest without a fancier, more expensive account.)
Quick Note on Income & Expenses: I am married, switched jobs about a month ago, and my spouse is transitioning to a new job (at a new company) in the next few weeks. We are moving to a more jointly-allocated model, as our incomes will be now more equal (excluding bonuses). This diary is based on our current situation, which is more individualized (I pay some bills, SO pays others) with a split of joint discretionary expenses. Maybe I’ll do another MD once we’re fully on the new system.

Day One

7:30 a.m. — This week starts with a chiropractor appointment for some chronic back issues. I wake up, quickly get myself together, and get ready to head out.
8:00 a.m. — After realizing the subway will take almost an hour to get there (shout out to train delays and long walks), I order a shared Lyft. $16.21
8:30 a.m. — Turns out my options were either be quite a bit early or be late. I pop in somewhere nearby for a cold brew to wake up and kill a few minutes. $5.10
9:30 a.m. — I finish at the chiropractor and pay. This is my first visit, so it’s a bit more than the normal cost. Out of network seems to be pretty common for specialists in NYC, so I’m used to the “pay and get reimbursed” model. $149
9:45 a.m. — I decide to work from home for the rest of the day and don’t have much on my plate, so I hop the subway back. $2.75
10:30 a.m. — I exit the subway and walk the 10 blocks or so back to my apartment. On the way, I stop at the grocery store for a gallon jug of water (post-treatment hydration motivation), some kombucha, and a Mexican Coca-Cola (treats). $6.24
1:30 p.m. — I’ve been using intermittent fasting to help my snacking habits, so I take a work break and end my fast with some grilled chicken salad I meal prepped previously. I enjoy the soda I bought earlier with lunch and get back to work.
5:15 p.m. — I finish my work a little early and decide to watch a couple of episodes of The Good Fight. I pay for the modest subscription to CBS All Access (which is on sale), which I set a reminder to cancel within the next month. It works out to be cheaper than renting an episode or a season from Amazon. $2.99
7:00 p.m. — My SO gets home and we discuss dinner. I decide I’m not especially hungry, so I make some quick scrambled egg whites with a Laughing Cow wedge and some frozen veggies.
8:00 p.m. — I freshen up and head out to my weekly therapy appointment, which requires a subway ride. $2.75
9:45 p.m. — I finish my appointment and start to make the journey home. The office bills my insurance and invoices me after processing, so I don’t have any payments this week. I usually walk a few blocks longer to the express stop because of nightly service changes (and also it clears my head). I reach the subway and hop on the train. $2.75
11:00 p.m. — After a few train delays and service switches, I finally get back to Brooklyn. I finish my podcast episode as I get ready to head to bed.
Daily Total: $187.79

Day Two

8 a.m. — I wake up and get ready for work. Breakfast is the meal I typically skip, so it’ll be coffee when I get into the office.
9 a.m. — I grab all of my stuff and head out the door. I hop on the subway and head into the office. I pay per ride because with how often I work remotely, the unlimited card is not worth it. $2.75
9:45 a.m. — My commute in is quick today, and I stop at the office kitchen to pour myself some iced coffee and put away my packed food. I brought another grilled chicken salad and some cottage cheese with frozen strawberries.
11:45 a.m. — I take a walk with a friend while he grabs salad at Sweetgreen. We catch up on office gossip as we move around the neighborhood. I eat my salad at my desk when we get back.
1 p.m. — It’s a light day of work, so I do some administrative tasks. I have a motorcycle permit with pipe dreams of owning a Vespa someday, so I decide that learning to ride on the street with an electric scooter is a good place to start. I end up signing up for a Revel account (local scooter-share) and book a free starter lesson. $20.69
3 p.m. — I eat my cottage cheese at my desk and grab a seltzer - the free snacks at work are a godsend. While I’m snacking I pay our gas bill. $20.93
5:45 p.m. — I take advantage of the light week and head out a bit early to meet an old colleague for catch-up drinks. I grab a Clif bar from the office pantry and hop on the subway. $2.75
8:15 p.m. — After a few beers, we realize we unwittingly ended up at trivia night and decide to stick around to play. This is going to be a longer night than I expected, but here we are.
11:00pm: We go to settle up, and my friend graciously covers the tab as a thank you for some advice I gave. I hazily wandered to McDonald’s for some chicken nuggets and fries and got a Lyft the rest of the way home, where I promptly pass out. $7.28 for food + $3.15 for the cab
Daily Total: $57.55

Day Three

4 a.m. — I wake up feeling the full weight of my choices. After realizing what time it is, I head to the kitchen, mix up some seltzer and a Nuun tablet, and use it to chase a Dramamine. I then try to fall back asleep with moderate success.
9 a.m. — I had already planned to work from home today, so I squint at my phone and check my emails in bed. What I planned to get done is still in a holding pattern with some folks who need to provide feedback, so I get yet another easy day.
1 p.m. — After fielding some questions and editing a few documents, I decide to eat some lunch. Luckily I have some food in the house (and am not particularly hungry), so I nosh on some fruit and yogurt.
6 p.m. — I decide I’m up for civilization and pay my friend for tonight’s sound bath. She has been hosting them on her rooftop as part of her expanding restorative yoga practice, and I find it’s a really nice way to relax. $25
6:50 p.m. — I head out the door for the sound bath. It’s about 30 minutes away on foot, and thankfully it’s cooled down enough to take a long walk.
9:00 p.m. — Feeling refreshed and decidedly more human, I walk back home. My body decides now is a great time to be hungry, so I stop at (a different) McDonald’s for some more chicken nuggets and a strawberry sundae. I try not to make this a regular occurrence, but here we are. $7.28
10:30 p.m. — While winding down before bed, I realize my investment withdrawal hit my account today. I use a spare change app, so it’s a minor amount. $6.57
Daily Total: $38.85

Day Four

9 a.m. — Another day, another subway ride to the office. $2.75
2 p.m. — After surviving a morning of meetings and wavering for an hour about what I wanted for lunch, I decided on a Chipotle salad bowl from my favorite macro cheat sheet. I try to bring my lunch, butMy deskmate then offered me some LeVain cookie before he sent it off to the masses (score!). $9.74
6:30 p.m. — My office friends have a standing happy hour on Thursdays, and after some Slack negotiations we decide on a more low-key evening. I stay for two beers before heading home. $10.71 for drinks + $2.75 for the subway
8 p.m. — The heat is really killing my appetite this week, so I have another dinner of egg whites + laughing cow and seasoning. After cleaning up I have a Trader Joe’s frozen lemon bar for dessert. Between the weather, my period, and general life choices I’ve been feeling tired so I decide to hang in tonight, watching tv and doing laundry. My SO and I are on somewhat of conflicting schedules this week, so he’s out with friends while I have some time alone.
10:45 p.m. — I check my Mint before bed and notice that a Kickstarter I backed a while ago has been funded. In retrospect I probably shouldn’t have spent the money, but here we are. My spending habits, much like my eating habits, took a nosedive while I was burning out hard at my old job. I go to bed knowing I’m going in a better direction. $199
Daily Total: $224.95

Day Five

9 a.m. — I planned to work from home today, so I stretch and fire up my computer. My SO is officially on funemployment while he transitions to his new job, so he takes a walk to grab some groceries and some coffee from Blue Bottle. I’ve been curious about the coffee tonics I’ve been hearing so much about, so I request one. $13.50 for my share or groceries + $5 for a coffee tonic
5:45 p.m. — I have a productive day, both at home and with work. My friend has been asking to come check out my neighborhood (she lives in NJ), so I meet her for a glass of wine. She treats, and we stop at the grocery store on the way back to get some cheeses, meats, and breads for our dinner at my place. $29
10:30 p.m. — After a few hours of singing show tunes and planning aspirational field trips (we’re obviously very cool), my friend heads back to NJ and I head to bed. It’s been a much more active week than usual!
Daily Total: $47.50

Day Six

9:30 a.m. — I slept like a rock, and wake up to find some breakfast tacos and iced coffee, courtesy of my SO. We tend to split the cost for these adventures, which is fine by me because I am fed and caffeinated. $5
11 a.m. — SO and I spend the morning reading and catching up after a busy week. We decide to get a few to-dos accomplished before he leaves for an in-town bachelor party.
3 p.m. — SO leaves and I have the house to myself. I keep doing laundry and relax with old episodes of It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia. It’s a super hot day, so being inside is perfectly okay.
9 p.m. — I find myself quite tired despite having a pretty sedentary day and head to bed early.
Daily Total: $5

Day Seven

8:30 a.m. — I’m up fairly early and remember that we blocked today off as a beach day!
10:45 a.m. — We get a slow start to the day, heading down to the local hardware store to procure a beach umbrella. The sun has been aggressive lately and we don’t have the desire to bring our tent. We snag an umbrella, as well as some miscellaneous cleaning products. Naturally, we stop for a coffee on the way back to the apartment. We’re generally more diligent about making iced coffee at home, but for some reason we’ve been missing the mark this week. $5 for coffee + $27.08 for my share of the hardware store order
12:45 p.m. — After a few more errands at home, getting ready, and eating some quick lunch, we head to the beach! Luckily we live near a subway to Coney Island (and it’s running without issues!), so we hop on. $2.75
1:30 p.m. — We made it! Finally! I have been so pumped for a beach day since meeting some friends in Atlantic City last month. We get set up and crack open two of the seltzers we packed for the trip. Ahh, sun and sand.
4:30 p.m. — We run out of provisions and decide to move ourselves indoors. We head to the Coney Island Brewery, which I’ve long been planning to visit. I am a homebrewer and my SO is studying to be a beer competition judge, so visiting breweries is one of our hobbies. We have flights and buy some swag. $43.50
6:30 p.m. — We both decide we’re craving burgers, and without a grill the best option is to head somewhere in the neighborhood. We choose a place and get on the subway home, but not before stopping for cotton candy (which I’ve been craving since we saw the Philharmonic in the park). I save it to enjoy for dessert. $2.75 for the subway + $3.25 for cotton candy
7:15 p.m. — We get to our dinner spot and order some burgers. We splurge on a shared side order of tots - worth it. $30.92
8:15 p.m. — We get home, shower, and decide to unwind for a bit before calling it a night.
9:30 p.m. — I have an early morning chiropractor appointment on Monday, so I turn in early. SO stays up to plot his funemployment week.
Daily Total: $115.25
The Breakdown:
Food & Drink: $138.02
Entertainment (brewery, scooter membership, tv): $67.18
Home & Health (Chiro, cleaning supplies, sound bath, gas bill): $222.01
Clothes & Beauty: $0
Transport (Subway + Cabs): $44.11
Other (Investment + Kickstarter): $205.57
Weekly Total: $676.89
submitted by calyps09 to MoneyDiariesACTIVE [link] [comments]

Mirror trading international | Apology: I have undersold the Mirror Trading International opportunity!

Mirror trading international | Apology: I have undersold the Mirror Trading International opportunity!
Mirror trading international
Mirror trading international — Firstly to everyone, a very happy 2020 — may this year be the year where your dreams come true. May you have experiences worthy of any bucket list even though you may not have a bucket list!
Mirror trading international — Let me get directly into the article; this morning I received a message from one of the members and she said ‘I misunderstood the opportunity, I read somewhere where they emphasized investing more bitcoins as opposed to recruiting people, that’s why I haven’t done anything.’ If you are in the MTI business and this is your impression then I deeply apologise for this miscommunication.
Mirror trading international — I will explain the two parts of the Mirror Trading International Business very carefully:
Part One: Investing your Bitcoin with Mirror trading international — The trading takes place and you will receive daily profits from trading. The profits have been consistent and have averaged over 10% monthly since the implementation of the new trading system in August 2019. If you have a reasonably big investment you could live on the interest you earn monthly. Even smaller amounts invested could supplement your existing income.
The reality is not all of us have big investments that would enable us to live comfortably from the interest we earn monthly. Therefore Mirror Trading International has a solution for those with an entrepreneurial spirit who wish to be successful and ultimately become financially free.
Part Two: Affiliate Program — You still need to be a member with an investment and the suggested investment is around $100 in Bitcoin. This gives you the status of a fully Paid Member and you can refer your friends. This will earn you a 10% Referral Commission which you can either withdraw or use to build up your investment.
Once you have personally introduced two people into the business (one in the left team and one on the right) and you have built your investment up to $200 in Bitcoin and maintain this level, you will share in the weekly Binary profit sharing pool. These weekly profits seem small at the start as they could be around $1, but as you grow your affiliate network these weekly profits soon grow and you will find yourself earning $10, $100 and $1000 weekly and more.
This is the value of the Affiliate Program within Mirror trading international and I can assure you this can change your life forever. Let me share my experience with you. My personal Story: I joined Mirror trading international in April 2019 about two weeks after it started. My financial situation at the time was as follows… I was unemployed, we were about to be given notice as we could not afford the small place we were renting and my car was about to be repossessed. We had already sold furniture and other items just so we could buy food. Honestly I did not have $10 to start, but I took the risk and managed to accumulate $80 (which was actually money I should have used for rent and food) so that I could start with Mirror trading international.
Starting with Mirror trading international at the beginning was not easy, many people did not trust the opportunity and the company had no track record. There was not even a website, the website was only launched in the middle of August 2019. The only way I could earn was by referring people and earning the 10% commission. I did everything I could and developed marketing material to help promote the business.
I contacted and personally spoke to more than 500 people about the opportunity, it was tough but I had no option. I made the choice to make Mirror trading international work for me or lose everything. In September the Binary profit sharing started and it supplied another stream of income and the MTI Binary Profit sharing bonus is what I call the 9th Wonder of the World.
At the end of November my wife and I moved to Italy and we are now semi-retired thanks to Mirror Trading International.
If I have ever given the impression that Mirror trading international is only for investors and if I have not told you about the real opportunity that MTI provides to become financially free just like it has given me, then I truly apologise for not putting more emphasis on the real business vehicle that MTI provides.
I wish you every success and I ask that you don’t delay, speak to the person who introduced you so that they can help you get all the necessary information and materials you need in order to build your Mirror Trading International business.
submitted by Mirrortradingintern to u/Mirrortradingintern [link] [comments]

BJP Government Performance Analysis: Administration & Governance

This is my 2nd article in the series of articles which analyse the work of Modi government starting from 2014 till present date. This one is about administration and governance. Unlike the first one on defence, it is not that binary and there are quite a few gray areas and is subject to opinions as much it is to facts. For example, I like how NGOs have been brought under tougher checks and a lot of such organisations have been forced to shut shop. But quite a few people view it as unfair.
BJP Government Performance Analysis: Defence Issues Blog Link
Reddit Link
Additionally, there is an overlap between governance issues and various others like economy, foreign policy etc. In this article, focus will will be on the work done or changes in way of working of central government ministries and departments. Some of these will be mentioned in next article which will be about economy issues.
1. Steps for leaner, responsive and more efficient government.
This is the most obvious, yet hardest things to do for any regime. All the decisions made by the politically elected government are implemented by officials who usually see multiple such governments come and go through their service. It is next to impossible to fire or even penalise them for even gross incompetence. Any reform in their way of working is extremely hard and takes years of sustained effort. Political and ideological differences even among ministers also play their part. Then there are politicians who have a mutually beneficial nexus with such officials even when they are out of power. Some of the first steps taken by Modi regime was to break this nexus and it seems to have succeeded partially. But there is still a long way to go.
  1. Officials working for central government have been forced to work much harder, so much so that many now view these prestigious jobs as punishment postings. Many non-performing officers have been disciplined and even sacked, a first. 1* 2* 29* 68* 112* 118* 132*
  2. Even serving ministers have been forced to adopt austerity measures. Some examples are no new vehicles, reduced travel expenses 1113 71* 125*
  3. Influence of foreign interests, corporates and their lobbyists has been severely curtailed. Many “powerful” people who had a lot of influence in various ministries and govt departments now don’t have insider knowledge or influence over decision making. 26* 63* 75*
  4. Many politicians squatting on government properties have been forced to vacate them. List of more than 1500 such squatters includes many former ministers, MLAs, MPs and many so called artists, inetellectuals who have been staying in govt allotted properties long after their time was over. Even BJP run state governments have evacuated have evacuated former CMs and MLAs. 61* 65* 104* 108* 109* 113*
  5. Business of paid for postings and transfers in many central govt departments has been severely curtailed. 7* 105*
  6. Many useless posts have been abolished and major departments downsized and streamlined. Often posts like this were used to accommodate officials in high paying post-retirement postings.4* 117*
  7. There is much greater communication between government and people. Many ministers and even PM office interact with common citizens on Twitter among other platforms. 124* 119*
  8. Options opened for direct entry of domain experts in to government departments. 133* 134* 135*
  9. Various measures taken to improve business climate like curtailment of harassment by various inspectors, passing of bankruptcy law, steps to improve ease of doing business among many others. It resulted in India making a record jump in ease of doing business index in 2017 and broke in to top 100 for first time. 3* 10* 12* 23* 46* 59* 66* 72* 154* 155* 156* 158* 159* 160*
  10. A very large number of old, archaic laws removed. Latest one under consideration (July 2018) in Supreme Court is article 377, removal of which will lead to decriminalisation of homo-sexuality. 1159 such redundant laws removed in just 2 years. 42* 163* 164* 165*
  1. Attempts to clean up bureaucracy and red tape need more will. In 4 years, there have not been many deep reforms in functioning of most govt departments, as far as corruption and delays are concerned. Then there have been some seemingly counter-productive measures like the one which makes it harder to investigate a govt servant.
  2. For most part, BJP ruled states have not shown enough initiative and willingness for reforms as was expected of them.
SCORE: 6.5/10
2.Corruption and black money.
Before anyone starts “where are my 15 lakh which Modi promised”, kindly watch this video.
Recovering black money was one of the major poll promises of BJP and they have made fairly good progress on some fronts while it lacks on others.. As it happened, cleanups also unearthed huge scams in bank loans in which UPA regime gave away loans to numerous people who never meant to pay those back. This has proven to be one of the biggest scams in history and many big industrialists and UPA politicians including former Finance Minister Chidambaram have been implicated. Many of them have ran away from India to escape persecution. Apart from that, even after their best efforts, all the opposition parties and their followers have been unable to find a single corruption charge against Modi regime till date.
Demonetisation, however controversial it may be, has enabled recovery of untaxed income worth thousands of crores which would have never happened except for drastic measure like this. Implementation of GST was not perfect, but it has led to streamlined taxation process with reduced leakage, This link contains list of some income tax raids done immediately after demonetisation.
  1. Huge scam in banking sector in which loans worth thousands of crores were given away without proper checks under influence of UPA ministers unearthed. Number of industrialists, bank officials and politicians are implicated. Many of these industrialists are being forced to give back that money. Legal actions being taken against others, some of which have fled India and some politicians and their associates. Banks starting to show gains after sustained recovery efforts. 120* 131* 136* 137* 138* 139* 140* 141* 158*
  2. Many politicians jailed or under investigation for various corruption issues including former CMs and central ministers. 130* 142* 143* 144* 149* 150*
  3. Many dubious NGOs, many of which have shady backgrounds have been forced to shut shop or forced to reduce their operations. Among the benign ones, many of such organisations were front for money laundering and payment of lackeys. Others were foreign sponsored fronts for mass scale conversions of Indics, anti-India propaganda and terrorism. 5* 9* 21* 91* 115* 126* 127* 145*
  4. A large quantity of black money from foreign bank accounts successfully recovered. Treaties signed with Switzerland (among other countries) under which Swiss will share details of Indians owning bank accounts in Swiss banks. 103* 122* 128* 129* 146* 148*
  5. Large increase in number of people paying income tax after rules like Aadhar verification, demonetisation, GST. Huge amounts of money recovered in income tax raids. Properties of gangsters targeted. Lakhs of shell companies closed down. 101* 121* 123* 128* 129* 147* 151* 152* 153* 161*
  6. Stronger laws passed against corruption and tax evasion. Top level corruption reduces significantly. 33* 75* 93* 101* 102*
  1. Modi regime perhaps underestimated how difficult the recovery of black money from foreign accounts will be. Although a huge sum of money has been recovered, the whole process will take a lot longer and most likely will fall short of hype during election campaign.
  2. A number of bank loan defaulters managed to evade authorities and escape to foreign countries. If they had been arrested earlier, then loan recovery would have been a lot more easier and faster.
  3. Implementation of GST was not up to par. Numerous issues still exist which will take atleast a few months to be sorted out.
  4. Although I personally support demonetisation, it was not as well planned as it should have been. Very large number of people faced inconveniences for quite long time due to shortage of currency. Strangely, number of currency notes in circulation has reached back previous levels.
  5. Even if corruption at top levels has been reduced, grassroot corruption still seems to be as bad as it was earlier. Problem of citizens dealing directly with govt departments have not eased much.
SCORE: 6.5/10
The actual score would have been a 6. Extra half point is due to clean image of almost every minister and no scams yet. Opposition parties have tried their best to make up scams like the one for Rafale planes, but their attempts have been laughably stupid.
3. Programs for citizens.
Energy savings with new policies Reforms in electricity
This regime seems to have better reach out programs for general public which are meant to make their lives and interaction with government machinery easier and fruitful. In addition to big steps like Jan Dhan bank accounts, Mudra Yojna, free LPG for poor, there have been number of measures implemented to make government departments more responsive and approachable. Some of these points have overlap with economy and infrastructure issues, but they are mentioned here because they affect lives of citizens directly. and profoundly.. Some of these will be explained in detail in later posts.
  1. Red tape cut across various government departments. Steps like digital locker, self-attestation of documents and a few others meant to reduce paperwork, unnecessary delays and corruption implemented. 47* 62* 66* 67* 72* 107*
  2. Jan Dhan Yojna brings banking to the poorest and enables direct transfer of funds for subsidies and other welfare programs. This is one of the best measures in quite a long time meant for direct benefit of the poor. Reduces delays and corruption. 167* 168* 169* 170* 171* 172* 173* 175*
  3. Passport issue and re-issue process made much easier and faster. 110* 166*
  4. More platforms for feedback about government departments and policies created. Emphasis on transparency in governance and grievance redressal mechanisms. 79* 124* 116* 119*
  5. Steps taken to solve some employee issues related to Provident Fund, pensions and others. Lot more reforms still needed. 6* 18*
  6. Swachh Bharat Mission despite problems is showing some results. 85% of population now has access to toilets, compared to around 40% at start of program. According to WHO, 3 lakhs deaths caused by diarrhea were averted between 2014 and 2019. A lot of public places like railway stations are much cleaner. 175 * 176* 177* 178* 179*
  7. Ujwala Yojana, a scheme meant to eradicate use of polluting fuels like wood, coal, dung for cooking proves to be a good success. 5 crore new connections allotted ahead of target. 180* 181* 182* 183*
  8. While many countries struggle with it, India implements strong net neutrality rules. 184* 185*
  9. Multiple steps taken to improve conditions for farmers. Extra impetus on reducing malnutrition and increasing availability of nutritional food to citizens through various schemes. 186, 187, 188, 189 205* 206*
  10. Excellent work so far by power ministry bringing even the remotest places in India on electricity grid. A number of villages which had remained outside the grid now have electricity. Additionally, electricity production and distribution is much better. India has a power surplus and is 3rd largest electricity producer in world. Most of issues still remaining are more often than not due to inefficient and corrupt state electricity corporations. Cheap LED bulbs help in reducing power consumption. 190, 191 192* 193* 194* 195* 196* 197* 198* 199* 200* 201* 202*
  11. Much needed push for solar power with huge new solar power plants coming up. 203* 204*
  12. Pace of road construction across the country has picked up substantially and it has been the highest till now. Many remote regions have new connectivity and existing highways in most regions have been upgraded, 207* to 232* 26 \
  1. Inspite of all the schemes and subsidies, Indian agricultural sector suffers from various issues which will need a lot more work and better implementations. There has been no obvious solution of issues arising due to small size of land holdings, mimimum support prices and bureaucratic red tape.
  2. Swach Bharat mission has been partially successful at best.
  3. Implementation of digital measures meant to reduce red tape have had limited effect till now. Many people and govt departments remain unaware and disinterested in these changes.
SCORE: 7/10
If it was just the intention of projects mentioned here, this would be a full 10. But meaningful implementation of many of these projects is hampered by numerous factors like inefficient, corrupt bureaucracy, infinitely stupid and large population as well as mediocre planning. Some of these projects are longterm and the effects will be visible only after a certain amount of time.
If compared with UPA regime, this one is miles ahead in almost everything. But this is not a good enough standard to improve upon. There have been some good efforts from top, but on ground implementation has been good in only a few. Some of the long standing issues like reforms in bureaucracy, agriculture and a few other fields which will take more than just good intent and announcement of schemes.
  1. Fear of Narendra Modi makes babus finalize plans in 24 hours
  2. Working a 6-day week? No problem! Bureaucrats are loving Modi’s iron-fist
  3. Investments to get push as Modi govt takes green clearances online
  4. PM Narendra Modi scraps 4 Cabinet Committees, including one on UIDAI
  5. Modi govt puts NGOs under scan following IB warning
  6. Employees to get pension payment order on retirement day: Govt
  7. National acc wiil be-appointing authority for top officers
  8. Rajnath singh reviews citizens database scheme
  9. Centre cracks the whip on NGOs, direct foreign funding put on hold
  10. Government clears investment hurdles, gives go ahead to seven projects worth Rs 21,000 crore
  11. Narendra Modi cracks the whip on ministers’ foreign travels
  12. Forest ministry greenlights faster, simpler clearances; defence, roads get priority
  13. Modi austerity drive, no new cars for ministers, PMO to monitor spending
  14. 3 satellite cities being planned for re-settlement of Kashmiri Pandits
  15. Thirty days in office, Narendra Modi-led NDA working to keep promises
  16. Narendra Modi government to club three social security schemes
  17. Rajnath Singh sets a 3-yr deadline for NPR rollout, link to voter ID likely
  18. Register online, get provident fund code within hours
  19. 660 Nirbhaya Centres for women violence victims
  20. Passport delivery to become hassle-free, no police verification in case of renewal
  21. ‘No relevance’, Centre asks UN mission to vacate Delhi office
  22. New advisory to end ‘inspector raj’
  23. Centre to shield businesses from dreaded ‘inspector raj’ with new system
  24. Railways’ ‘silent killers’: Now, trains won’t stop at ‘MP stops’
  25. Managing of PM Relief Fund to be modelled on Gujarat scheme
  26. Fear and foreboding in South Block
  27. Government proposes changes in BIS to ensure product quality, withdrawal of substandard goods
  28. Narendra Modi government’s small reforms with big impact
  29. For the first time in the history, IAS officers sacked in disproportionate assets case–39518.html
  30. Centre clears revised norms for new airport bids in record time
  31. PM launches unique web platform to get citizens’ ideas for governance
  32. Govt dissolves Khadi commission
  33. Narendra Modi government asks ‘Babus’ to declare assets on or before September 15–39747.html
  34. Army Happy With ‘Quick’ Govt‘Quick’-Govt/2014/07/27/article2350296.ece
  35. Modi Cabinet clears labour reform Bills
  36. How Achche Din dawned for Std XI and XII students in Baramulla
  37. Madhya Pradesh govt rehabs Bangla non-Muslims
  38. Winds of change: Productivity of Lok Sabha climbs to 103%
  39. Government tells states to build detention centers for illegal Bangladeshis
  40. Cabinet clears amendments to Juvenile Justice Act paving way for harsher punishment
  41. Cabinet approves bill for judicial appointment body
  42. Administration Govt prepares bill to repeal 36 archaic laws Administration
  43. 13 reasons to cheer Modi sarkar’s first Parliament session
  44. 10 things that the Modi government is doing right
  45. Budget session productivity hits a high of 104%
  46. Bid to improve investment climate
  47. Marriage registrations to go online from next month
  48. New norms soon for PSU bank directors; CMD post to be split
  49. National Investigation Agency ropes in Indian Statistical Institute for study on fake currency notes
  50. 1 lakh per school to cover 10,000 schools.
  51. INDIA MODI-fied: Volume-3; The First Propulsion
  52. IRCTC to soon offer cash on delivery for rail tickets
  53. 100-day delivery: Modi ready with infra report card
  54. PM Modi sets up committee to identify ‘obsolete’ laws Manifesto Administration
  55. .भारत (.Bharat) top-level domain launched
  56. PM Modi’s big plan: Get education, medical & birth records online in a digital locker
  57. Buoyed by PM Modi’s election win, economy set to clock highest growth in 2 years
  58. 100 DAYS – A report card
  59. Job creation to inspector raj, government did its work
  60. Right and Radical The understated revolution of Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  61. Modi gets Lutyens’ bungalows vacated in three months
  62. Soon, single RTO visit will be sufficient Modi effect?
  63. Favouritism in govt decisions down, India improves global rank Modi effect?
  64. Jammu and Kashmir floods: Narendra Modi deploys successful Google app to find people
  65. Power, water supplies snapped in houses of Ajit Singh, Azharuddin
  66. Modi government promotes self attestation of documents
  67. Non-essential drugs: NPPA withdraws price control order
  68. Modi government launches website to track attendance of government employees
  69. Center launches Air Quality Index
  70. Narendra Modi government takes RTI to another level: All replies to be put online
  71. Modi government cancels golf memberships for bureaucrats
  72. Narendra Modi Cabinet to cut paper trail, go Kindle
  73. What triggered the crackdown
  74. When an “Aam Aadmi” exposed Journalist Mihir S Sharma
  75. Top-level corruption’s down in Modi govt, fingers crossed: India Inc
  76. Indian Railways launches country’s first customer complaint mobile app (IT)
  77. Mispricing exports, imports may land you in jail for 7 years
  78. Operation Smile: Rajnath Singh’s push helps recover 2500 missing children
  79. PM launches multi-purpose and multi-modal platform PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation)
  80. Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approves innovative mechanism for utilization of stranded gas based generation capacity
  81. Formation of SPV to provide efficient rail evacuation systems to Major Ports
  82. Modi led NDA govt bypasses bid route, PGCIL to develop 20K MW green corridor
  83. Reclaim your inoperative EPFO a/c money
  84. Judicial reform proposals: Litigations to end in 3 to 5 years, summons to be sent by email
  85. In Big Relief for Farmers, PM Modi Announces More Compensation for Crop Damage
  86. Home Ministry freezes all 7 bank accounts of Greenpeace India
  87. LPG cash transfer plan takes commercial cylinder sales up
  88. PM Modi launches PRAGATI platform for redressal of grievances (DNA)
  89. Ford Foundation put under MHA watch list in “national interest and security” of India
  90. NaMo’s healing touch to Farmers – Direct Deposit of Relief to Jan Dhan Accounts
  91. Govt cancels licences of 8,975 NGOs for failing to file annual returns
  92. Bharat Mala: PM Narendra Modi’s planned Rs 14,000 crore road from Gujarat to Mizoram (ET)
  93. Cabinet clears stronger anti-corruption Act
  94. Prime Minister to Launch Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY), Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) AND The Atal Pension Yojana (APY) on 9th May 2015 at Kolkata
  95. Narendra Modi government eases incorporation of business, process to take just 1 form starting today
  96. Forest fund gets Rs 38,000 crore boost
  97. India is in a much better place after one year of Modi rule
  98. One Year Later, India In Better Shape Under Modi
  99. One year of Modi government: A look at what does India Inc think
  100. Entire Machinery of Indian Railways Geared up for Implementation Work
  101. Govt goes after D-gang properties, to approach agencies abroad
  102. Black Money Bill with more teeth gets Rajya Sabha approval
  103. Switzerland begins naming Indians, foreigners being probed at home for tax evasion
  104. Narendra Modi government booted out 460 leaders from Lutyens bungalows
  105. How the PM dismantled the transfer-posting industry
  106. Meet India’s chief human resources officer
  107. Live paperless; keep sensitive data, documents safe in DigiLocker
  108. With 1500 squatters kicked out from Lutyens bungalows, it might explain why its always Modi vs All 109 Govt pushes squatters out of Lutyens Bungalow Zone, only 4 left
  109. Police verification no longer required for reissue of passports: Govt
  110. Govt’s ultimatum to road developers: Perform or perish
  111. 2,200 corrupt govt officials identified in 2015, CBI says
  112. Narendra Modi government evicts record number of illegal occupants from Lutyens Delhi
  113. Parrikar finds $3 bn lying forgotten in US account
  114. India denies visas to US religious freedom body
  115. FCI goes online, links 30 godowns in 1st phase
  116. Big reform: Modi government plans to redeploy bureaucrats and reduce patronage postings
  117. 15 customs and central excise personnel fired: Sacking signals crackdown on laggards
  118. Modi government makes 8 lakh calls in 10 days to check success of four big schemes
  119. The biggest ever fire sale of Indian corporate assets has begun, to tide over bad loans crisis
  120. Blackmoney: Govt unearths indirect tax evasion of Rs 50,000 crore in two years
  121. The Mauritius Loophole: The Story Of Its Origin And How India Finally Managed To Shut It Infrastructure
  122. Rs. 43,000 Crore In Black Money Recovered In 2 Years: Revenue Secretary
  123. Why PM Modi called this Tripura IAS officer at 10pm
  124. PM Narendra Modi’s Cleanliness Drive Frees Up Space For 50 In His Office
  125. Ford Foundation-govt stand-off ends as NGO agrees to come under Fema
  126. Home Ministry freezes all 7 bank accounts of Greenpeace India
  127. Govt to net Rs 10,000 crore from Swiss bank accounts by March-end: SIT
  128. Swiss banks up black money vigil as India threatens criminal action
  129. CBI raids P Chidambaram and son Karti’s residence in Chennai; Congress calls it political vendetta by BJP
  130. Banking scam has UPA era roots
  131. Modi Govt @ 4: How the Dread of Deadlines Revamped Sarkaari Offices
  132. Private Sector Professionals Can Be Bureaucrats, 10 Senior Posts Open
  133. Alternative to IAS? Modi govt opens lateral entry for professionals as Joint Secretaries; details here
  134. Lateral Entry: Landmark step by Modi govt to equip bureaucracy for challenges and opportunities
Rest of link in comments. Reddit is changing the numbering pattern in links on comments on it's own. Original post :
submitted by dark-ritual to IndiaSpeaks [link] [comments]

The Tyranny of the Minimum Viable User

In addressing shortcomings of a major web browser recently, I tossed out a neologism for a neologistic age: Minimum viable user.
This describes the lowest-skilled user a product might feasibly accommodate, or if you're business-minded, profitably accommodate. The hazard being that such an MVU then drags down the experience for others, and in particular expert or experienced users. More to follow.
There are cases where reasonable accommodations should be considered, absolutely. Though how this ought be done is also critical. And arbitrary exclusions for nonfunctional reasons -- the term for that is "discrimination", should you ask -- are right out.
Accessibility accommodations, in physical space and informational systems, is a key concern. I don't generally require these myself, but know many people who do, and have come to appreciate their concerns. I've also come to see both the increased imposition, and benefits, this offers by way of accommodating the needs.
It's often underappreciated how increased accessibility helps many, often all, users of a product or space. A classic instance would be pavement (or sidewalk) kerb cuts -- bringing the edge of a walkway to street level, rather than leaving a 10 cm ridge. This accommodates not just wheelchairs, but dollies, carts, wheeled luggage, and more. Benefits which materialised only after deployment, beyond the original intent.

Accessibility and Information Systems

For information systems -- say, webpages -- the accommodations which are most useful for perceptually-challenged users are also almost always beneficial to others: clear, high-contrast layouts. Lack of distracting screen elements. A highly semantic structure makes work easier for both screen-readers (text-to-speech) and automated parsing or classification of content. Clear typography doesn't fix all copy, but it makes bad copy all the more apparent. Again, positive externalities.
When we get to the point of process-oriented systems, the picture blurs. The fundamental problem is that an interface which doesn't match the complexity of the underlying task is always going to be unsatisfactory. Larry Wall has observed this with regard to the Perl programming language: complexity will out. In landscape design, the problem is evidenced by the term "desire path". A disagreement between use and design.[1]
At its heart, a desire path is the failure for designer to correctly anticipate, or facilitate, the needs and desires of their users. Such paths reflect emergent practices or patterns, some constructive, some challenging the integrity of a system. Mastodon Tootstorms are an example of a positive creative accommodation. Mostly.
On other services, the lack of an ability to otherwise dismiss content frequently creates an overload of the spam or abuse reporting mechanism. G+ comes to mind. If a side-effect of reporting content is that it is removed from my view, and there is no other way to accomplish that goal, then the reporting feature becomes the "remove from visibility" function. I've ... had that conversation with Google for a number of years. Or is that a monologue...
Software programming is in many ways a story of side-effects and desire paths, as is the art of crafting system exploits. PHP seems particularly prone to this, though I can't find the character-generating hack I've in mind.
There's the question of when a system should or shouldn't be particularly complex. Light switches and water taps are a case in point. The first has operated as a simple binary, the second as a variable-rate flow control, and the basic functionality has remained essentially unchanged for a century or more. Until the Internet of Broken Shit that Spies on you wizkids got ahold of them.... And modulo some simple management interfaces: timers or centralised large-building controls.
Simple tasks benefit from simple controls.
Complex tasks ... also benefit from simple controls, but no simpler than the task at hand.
A good chef, for example, needs only a modicum of basic elements. A good knife. A reliable cooktop and oven. A sink. A cutting surface. Mixing bowls. Underappreciated: measuring equipment. Measuring spoons, cups, pitchers. A scale. Thermometer. Timers. The chef also may have call for some specific processing equipment: cutting, chopping, blending, grating, and mixing tools. Powering these increases throughput, but the essential controls remain simple. And some specialised tools, say, a frosting tube, but which generally share common characteristics: they're individually simple, do one thing, usually a basic transformation, and do it well.
The complexity of the process is in the chef, training, and practice.
The antithesis of this is "cooking gadgets" -- tools or appliances which are complicated, fussy, achieve a single and non-general result, or which integrate (or attempt to do so) a full process. This is the stuff that clutters counter space and drawers: useless kitchen gadgets. A category so egregious it defies even simple listing, though you're welcome to dig through search results.
If you can only use it on one recipe, it's bad mkay?

Appropriateness of Single-use Tools: Safety equipment

On single-use tools: if that single use is saving your life in conditions of readily forseeable peril, then it may well be worth having. Lifeboats. Seatbelts. First aid kit.
That gets down to a risk assessment and mitigation calculation problem though, which may be error-prone: over- and under-estimating risks, and/or the efficacy of mitigations. Pricing risk and risk-as-economic good is another long topic.

Lifts, Telephones, and Automobiles

There are times when you absolutely should be aiming for the minimum viable user. Anything that sees widespread shared public use, for example. I shouldn't have to read the user manual to figure out how to open the front door to your building. Automatic, sensored doors, would be an entirely MVU product.
I've mentioned lifts, automobiles, and telephones. Each is highly complex conceptually, two can maim or kill. All can be relatively safely used by most adults, even children. A large part of what makes lifts, automobiles, and telephones so generally usable is that the controls are very highly standardised. Mostly. The exceptions become newsworthy.
Telephones have deviated from this with expansion of mobile and even more complex landline devices. And the specific case of business-oriented office telephones has been for at least 30 years, a strong counterexample, worth considering.

Office Phone Systems

It takes me a year or more to figure out a new office phone system. If ever. A constant for 30 years. This wasn't the case as of the 1980s, when a standard POTS-based phone might have five buttons, and the smarts were in a PBX generally located within the building.
By the 1990s, though, "smart phones" were starting to appear. Rolm was one early vendor I recall. These had an increasing mix of features, not standardised either across or within vendor lines, but generally some mix of:
  1. Voicemail
  2. Call forwarding
  3. Call conferencing
  4. Lots of other random shit to inflate marketing brochures
Feature #4 was a major problem, but the underlying one was, and remains, I think, the mismatch of comms channels and cognitive capacities a phone represents: audio, physical, textual, and short-term working memory.
The physical interface of most phones -- and I'm referring to desk sets here -- is highly constrained. There's a keypad, generally 12 buttons (not even enough for the impoverished Roman alphabet, let alone more robust ones), possibly an additional set of function buttons, and a handset, plus some base. Cords.
More advanced phonesets have perfected the technology of including a display for text which is simultaneously unreadable under any lighting conditions, viewing angles, or capable of providing useful information in any regard. This another engineering accomplishment with a decades-long record.
Phones are relatively good for talking, but they are miserable for communication. Reflected by millennials disdain for making phone calls Millennials prefer text-based apps to voice comms, as do numerous tech early-adopters. I suspect the reason is both the state-maintenance and fragility of phone-based communications.
I'm distinguishing talking -- a longer and wandering conversation with a friend -- and communicating -- the attempt to convey or obtain some specific task-oriented or process-oriented information. The salient difference is that the latter is very strongly goal oriented, the former, not so much. That is, a "simple" phone conversation is a complex interaction and translation between visual, textual, audio, physical, and memory systems. It's also conducted without the visual cues of face-to-face communications (as are all remote comms), for further fun and games. This usually makes conversations with someone you know well (for whom you can impute those cues) generally far more straightforward than with a stranger, especially for complex discussions.
The upshot is that while a telephone is reasonably simple to use in the basic case -- establish a voice connection with another device generally associated with a person or business -- it actually fails fairly profoundly in the surrounding task context for numerous reasons. Many of which boil down to an interface which is simultaneously oversimplified and poorly suited to the task at hand.
Smartphones, and software-based telephony systems in general, followed the business phone lead.
Mobile comms generally have expanded on failures of business phone systems in poor usability as phones by significantly deteriorating audio quality and dynamics -- constraints of packet-switching, compression, additional relay hops, and speed-of-light delays have boosted noise and lag to the level of interfering with the general flow of conversation. Which isn't particularly an interface failure as such (this is channel behaviour), but it encourages the shift to text of millennials.
I'll save the question of how to fix voice comms for discussion.
The point I'm making is that even an apparently straightforward device and task, with a long engineering history, can find itself ill-matched to new circumstances.
There's also much path-dependence here. Lauren Weinstein on G+ enjoys digging up old AT&T engineering and marketing and/or propaganda newsreels describing development of the phone system: direct-dial, switching, 7-digit, area-code, long-distance, touch-tone. There were real and legitimate design, engineering, and use considerations put into each of these. It's not as if the systems were haphazardly put together. This still doesn't avoid the net result being a bit of a hash.
An appreciation of why Mr. Chesterton built his fence , and whether or not that rationale remains valid, is useful to keep in mind. As are path-dependencies, 2nd-system effects, and late-adopter advantages. Those building out interdependent networks after initial trial often have a significant advantage.
It's also interesting to consider what the operating environment of earlier phones was -- because it exceeded the device itself.
A business-use phone of, say, the 1970s, existed in a loosely-integrated environment comprising:
Critically: these components operated simultaneously and independently of the phone.
A modern business, software, or smartphone system may offer some, or even all, of these functions, but frequently:
The benefits are that they are generally cheaper, smaller, more portable, and create digital data which may be, if accessible to other tools, more flexible.
But enough of phones.

The Unix Philosophy

The Unix Philosophy reads: "Write programs that do one thing and do it well. Write programs to work together. Write programs to handle text streams, because that is a universal interface."
It offers a tremendous amount of mileage.

Exceptions to the Unix Philosophy: Complexity Hubs

I want to talk about the apparent exceptions to the Unix philosophy: shells, editors, email, init (and especially systemd), remote filesystems, udev, firewall rules, security generally, programming languages, GUIs.
Apparently, "exceptions to the Unix philosophy" is very nearly another neologism -- I find a single result in Google, to an essay by Michael O. Church. He adds two more items: IDEs (integrated developer environments), arguably an outgrowth of editors, and databases. Both are solid calls, and both tie directly into the theme I had in mind in the preceding toot.
These are all complexity hubs -- they are loci of either control or interfacing between and among other systems or complex domains:

The GUI Mess

This leaves us with GUIs, or more generally, the concept of the domain of graphics.
The complexity here is that graphics are not text. Or at the very least, transcend text. It is possible to use text to describe graphics, and there are tools which do this: Turtle. Some CAD systems. Scalable vector graphics (SVG). But to get philosophical: the description is not the thing. The end result is visual, and whilst it might be rule-derived, it transcends the rule itself.
One argument is that when you leave the domain of text, you leave the Unix philosophy behind. I think I'm OK with that as a starting premise. This means that visual, audio, mechanical, and other sensory outputs are fundamentally different from text, and that we need to keep in mind that text, whilst powerful, has its limits.
It's also to keep in mind, though, what the characteristics and limits of GUIs themselves are.
Neal Stephenson, "In the Beginning was the Command Line", again, offers one such: Metaphor sheer. Most especially where a GUI is used to represent computer system elements themselves, it's crucial to realise that the representation is not the thing itself -- map-territory confusion. In fact a GUI isn't so much a representation as a remapping of computer state.
Unix, the C programming language, and the bash shell all remain relatively close to machine state. In many cases, the basic Unix commands are wrappers around either C language structures (e.g., printf(1) and printf(3)), or report the content of basic data structures (e.g., stat(1) and stat(2)). Even where the concept is reshaped significantly, you can still generally find the underlying concept present. This may be more foreign for newbies, but as exposure to the system is gained, interface knowledge leverages to system knowledge.
GUIs lose this: represented state has little coherence.
Some argue that not being tied to the mechanism is an advantage -- that this allows the interface designer a freedom to explore expressions independent of the underlying mechanism.
This is true.
But it gets to another set of limitations of GUIs:
Scripting has the effect of constraining, for better or worse, changes to interfaces because scripts have to be updated as features change. The consequence is that tools either don't change arguments, change them with exceedingly long advance warning, or failing either of those, are rapidly discarded by those who use them due to gratuitous interface changes. The result is a strong, occasionally stifling, consistency over time.
The limits on information density and on scaling or scrolling are another factor. A good GUI might offer the ability to expand or compress a view by a few times, but it takes a very creative approach to convey the orders of magnitude scales which, say, a physical library does. Data visualisation is its own specialty, and some are good at it.
The result is that most GUI interfaces are good for a dozen, perhaps a few dozens, objects.
Exceptions to this are telling. xkcd is on the money: This chart manages to show values from $1to $2.39 quadrillion ($2.39 thousand million million), within the same visualisation, a span of 15 orders of magnitude, by using a form of logarithmic scaling. This is possible, but it is difficult to do usefully or elegantly.

GUIs, Efficiency, and Change

Change aversion and inherent limits to GUI productivity interact to create the final conflict for GUIs: the potential for interface efficiency is limited and change is disruptive, you lose for trying. Jamie "jwz" Zawinski notes this:
Look, in the case of all other software, I believe strongly in "release early, release often". Hell, I damned near invented it. But I think history has proven that UI is different than software.
What jwz doesn't do is explain why this is, and I'm not aware of others who have.
This also shows up in the case of Apple, a company which puts a premium on design and UI, but which is exceedingly conservative in changing UI. The original Mac desktop stuck with its initial motif from 1984 until 2001: 17 years. It successor has changed only incrementally from 2001 to 2017, very nearly as long. Even Apple realise: you don't fuck with the GUI.
This suggests an underlying failure of the Linux desktop effort isn't a failure to innovate, but rather far too much churn in the desktop.
My daily driver for 20 years has been Window Maker, itself a reimplementation of the 1989 NeXT desktop. Which is to say that a 30 year-old design works admirably. It's fast, stable, doesn't change unexpectedly with new releases or updates, and gets the fuck out of the way. It has a few customisations which tend to focus on function rather than form.

The Minimum Viable User GUI and Its Costs

Back to my starting premise: let's assume, with good reason, that the Minimum Viable User wants and needs a simple, largely pushbutton, heavily GUI, systems interface.
What does this cost us?
The answer is in the list of Unix Philosophy Violating Tasks:

Just Who is the Minimum Viable User?

A central question, and somewhat inexcusably buried at this point in my essay, is who is the Minimum Viable User? This could be the lowest level of system skills capable of using a device, which an OECD survey finds is abysmally bad. Over half the population, and over 2/3 in most surveyed industrialised countries, have poor, "below poor", or no computer skills at all.
I'm moving past this point quickly, but recommend very strongly reading Jacob Nielsen's commentary on this study, and the study itself: "Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills" (OECD, 2016). The state of typical user skills is exceedingly poor. If you're reading this essay, you're quite likely not among them, though if you are, the comment is simply meant without disparagement as a statement of fact: from high to low, the range of user computer skills is enormous, with the low end of the range very highly represented in the general population. People who, largely, otherwise function quite well in society: they have jobs, responsibilities, families.
This has profound implications for futures premised on any sort of general technical literacy. As William Ophuls writes in Plato's Revenge, social systems based on the premise that all the children are above average are doomed to failure.
The main thrust of this essay though is a different concern. Global information systems which are premised on a minimal-or-worse level of sophistication by all users also bodes poorly, though for different reasons: it hampers the capabilities of that small fraction -- 5-8% or less, and yes, quite probably far less -- of the population who can make highly productive use of such tools, by producing hardware and software which fails to support advanced usage.
It does this by two general modes:
The dynamics are also driven by market and business considerations -- where the money is, and how development, shipping, and maintaining devices relates to cash flows.

The Problem-Problem Problem

One business response is to extend the MVU definition to that of the Minimum Viable-Revenue User: services are targeted at those with the discretionary income, or lack of alternatives, to prove attractive to vendors.
There's been well-founded criticism of Silicon Valley startups which have lost track of what a meaningful problem in need of solution. It's a problem problem. Or: The problem-problem problem.
Solving Minor Irritations of Rich People, or better, inventing MIoRP, as a bootstrapping method, has some arguable utility. Telsa Motors created a fun, but Very ExpensiveTM , electrified Lotus on its way to creating a viable, practical, battery-powered, Everyman vehicle. Elon Musk is a man who has made me a liar multiple times, by doing what I unequivocally stated was impossible, and he impresses the hell out of me for it.
Amazon reinvented Sears, Roebuck, & Co. for the 21st century bootstrapped off a books-by-mail business.
I'm not saying there ain't a there there. But I'm extremely unconvinced that all the there there that's claimed to be there is really there.
Swapping out the phone or fax in a laundry, food-delivery, dog-walking, or house-cleaning business is not, in the larger scheme of things, particularly disruptive. It's often not even a particularly good business when catering to the Rich and Foolish. Not that parting same from their easily-won dollars isn't perhaps a laudable venture.
The other slant of the Minimum Viable User is the one who is pushed so far up against the wall, or fenced in and the competition fenced out, that they've no option but to use your service. Until such time as you decide to drag them off the plane. Captive-market vendor-customer relationship dynamics are typically poor.
For numerous reasons, the design considerations which go into such tools are also rarely generative. Oh: Advertising is one of those domains. Remember: Advertising breeds contempt.
Each of these MVU business cases argues against designing for the generative user. A rather common failing of market-based capitalism.
Robert Nozick explains criticism of same by creatives by the fact that "by and large, a capitalist society does not honor its intellectuals". A curious argument whose counterpoint is "capitalism is favoured by those whom it does unduly reward".
That's solipsistic.
Pointing this out is useful on a number of counts. It provides a ready response to the Bullshit Argument that "the market decides". Because what becomes clear is that market forces alone are not going to do much to encourage generative-use designs. Particularly not in a world of zero-marginal-cost products. That is: products whose marginal costs are small (and hence: pricing leverage), but with high fixed costs. And that means that the market is going to deliver a bunch of shitty tools.

Getting from Zero to One for Generative Mobile Platforms

Which suggests one of a few possible avenues out of the dilemma: a large set of generative tools have been built through non-capitalistic organisation. The Free Software / Open Source world would be a prime case in point, but it's hardly the first. Scientific research and collaboration, assembly of reference tools, dictionaries, encyclopedias. That's an option.
Though they need some sort of base around which to form and organise. And in the case of software they need hardware.
For all the evil Bill Gates unleashed upon the tech world (a fair bit of it related to the MVU and MFVU concepts themselves), he also unleashed a world of i386 chipset systems on which other software systems could be developed. Saw to it that he individually and specifically profited from every one sold, mind. But he wasn't able to restrict what ran on those boxes post-delivery.
GNU/Linux may well have needed Bill Gates. (And Gates may well have not been able to avoided creating Linux.)
There are more smartphones and Android devices today than there ever were PCs, but one area of technical advance over the decades has been in locking systems down. Hard. And, well, that's a problem.
I don't think it's the only one, though.
Commodity x86 hardware had a model for the operating system capable of utilising it which already existed: Unix. Linus Torvalds may have created Linux, but he didn't design it as such. That template had been cut already. It was a one-to-two problem, a question of scaling out. Which is to say it wasn't a Zero to One problem.
And yes, Peter Thiel is an evil asshat, which is why I'm pointing you specifically at where to steal his book. That's not to say he isn't an evil asshat without the occasional good idea.
I'm not sure that finding (and building) the Open Mobile Device Environment is a Zero to One problem -- Google, well, Android Inc., leveraged Linux, after all. But the design constraints are significantly different.
A standalone PC workstation is much closer to a multi-user Unix server in most regards, and particularly regards UI/UX, than is a mobile device measuring 25, or 20, or 12, or 8 cm. Or without any keyboard. Or screen. And a certain set of tools and utilities must be created.
It's not as if attempts haven't been made, but they simply keep not getting anywhere. Maemo. FirefoxOS. Ubuntu Phone. Hell, the Psion and Palm devices weren't bad for what they did.
Pick one, guys & gals. Please.

The Mobile Applications Ecosystem is Broken

There's also the question of apps, and app space, itself. By one school of thought, a large count of available applications is a good thing. By another, it's a sign of failure of convergence. As of 2017, there are 2.5 million Google Play apps.
Is it even worth the search time? Is meaningful search of the space even possible?
The question occurs: is it really in Google's interest to proliferate applications which are separate, non-integrated, split development efforts, and often simply perform tasks poorly?
Why not find a way to focus that development effort to producing some truly, insanely, great apps?
The consequences are strongly reminiscent of the spyware and adware problem of desktop Windows in the early 2000s. For the same reason: competitive software development incentivises bad behaviour and poor functionality. It's the Barbarians at the Gate all over again. With so many independent development efforts, and such an inefficient communications channel to potential users, as well as poor revenue potential through kosher methods, the system is inherently incentivised to exceedingly user-hostile behaviour.
A valid counterargument would be to point to a set of readily-found, excellent, well-designed, well-behaved, user-centric tools fulfilling fundamental uses mentioned in my G+ post. But this isn't the case. Google's Play Store is an abject failure from a user perspective. And catering to the MVU carries a large share of the blame.
I'm not saying there should be only one of any given application either -- some choice is of value. Most Linux distributions will in fact offer a number of options for given functionality, both as shell or programming tools (where modular design frequently makes these drop-in replacements, down to syntax), and as GUI tools.
Whilst "freedom to fork" is a touted advantage of free software, "capacity to merge" is even more salient. Different design paths may be taken, then rejoined.
There's another line of argument about web-based interfaces. I'll skip much of that noting that the issues parallel much of the current discussion. And that the ability to use alternate app interfaces or browser site extensions is critical. Reddit and Reddit User Suite, by Andy Tuba, are prime exemplars of excellence in this regard.

Related Reading

A compilation of articles reflecting this trend.


Yes, this is a lot of words to describe the concept generally cast as "the lowest common denominator". I'm not claiming conceptual originality, but terminological originality. Additionally:
This post was adapted from an earlier Mastodon Tootstorm.


  1. Reddit fans of the concept might care to visit /DesirePaths.
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With an emphasis on providing the most excellent customer services and guidance through every step even if you are new to the trading world and had no experience before, this software really helps you out to gain your experience through online competition with other traders. Trade Sniper System links trading signals through a communication network which is based on market behavior and conditions. It traces, analyze and foretell lucrative trades, over 120 times regularly.
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The team really works day and night to improve the software. If you check on daily basis you will see remarkable improvements every time since the last time you did your trade. It offers updated version with new features and tools that will increase the accuracy to your daily trading experience. There are reliable brokers that work to increase the chance of gaining and really not disturbing your investment until you are 100% satisfied with Trade Sniper System.
How Does Trade Sniper Work?
Please NOTE this important thing that if you visit the broker website directly and deposit the money there then you will probably not be allowed to access the software in any circumstances. The best way to get access to it is:
Step 1 : Visit the official website here.
Step 2 : Fill your email ID in the box given on the page.
Step 3 : After that, you will be taken to Trade Sniper members area where you will find some instructions to deposit money in your Broker account. Only click that banner.
Step 4 : Once you have deposited the money, you will be allowed to access the Trade Sniper Software?
The Good Points:
• Most importantly: It works and it doesn’t er what your experience level is. If you implement the system, and follow the formula, you WILL make money. Maybe not $100,000 a month to start, but a full-time income is certainly achievable in the near future.
• Anyone can use it. It doesn’t er if you are completely new to Internet marketing, and have no technical knowledge whatsoever. You DON’T need to have any prior experience with computers or business. This system will teach you EVERYTHING you need to know, to create long-lasting, highly profitable blogs.
• Very easy to learn and apply. This System is NOT a long-winded, fluff filled E-book. It really is a simple, step by step formula that can be applied by anyone.
Bottom Line:
If you are ready to start making money online, there has never been a better opportunity than now. If you enjoy surfing the web for countless hours looking for the next hot tip, never being able to get focused, being overloaded with conflicting information, and not making money online, you should probably leave this page right now and get back to that strategy.
Trade Sniper is recommended! If you buy this product and start implementing what teaches you I have no doubts that you’ll make money. Trade Sniper works and it’s not a scam.
This is what works for me. Overall, it is well worth its price. Highly recommended! You won’t regret it! ?
==>Click Here to Get Trade Sniper Software With 100% Free<==
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<>|"Guaranteed Wealth Review"| Is it a SCAM or Legit? \\Read This First//

Welcome to My Guaranteed Wealth Review - Does Chris Freville's Guaranteed Wealth Really Work? - What Guaranteed Wealth All About? Is Guaranteed Wealth a SCAM Or Legit ? Guaranteed Wealth System Review, Download Guaranteed Wealth Software! Guaranteed Wealth reviews and Bonus !
Product Description:
Product name: Guaranteed Wealth
Niche: Binary Option
Official website : ==>> Guaranteed Wealth Official Website
. Bonus offer : affirmative($300)
What is Guaranteed Wealth ?
It is a very simple method that will allow you to make $500 to $700 or even more on a daily basis with very little work! With the system, you will be able to make a 3-figure sum or even a 4-figure sum on a daily basis with very little to no efforts at all, that’s how easy it is to use the system and make money with it!So now let’s see what exactly you will get with the millionaire system in the Guaranteed Wealth review article.
What is Binary Trading?
Binary trading is a type of financial trading in which the payout is either fixed rate for a successful trade or a small percentage of a losing trade.
It is a simple system where the traders have to predict whether an asset or currency will rise (“Call”) or fall (“Put”) in value in a stipulated time period. The main reason that many people are turning to binary trading is that it offers higher payouts, up to 150% to 170% on every successful trade within a short period of time.
And if you too think to make the most out of the binary trading system, then Guaranteed Wealth system will help you out by picking out the best trade to make more and more money. .
Guaranteed Wealth Software Review
Guaranteed Wealth is incomparable trading software. By using its simple trading techniques you can have stabilize stream of profits daily. In a very little time it can convert your $5 investment to a $100. Its free, there is no trial period plus you get a complete untangled string of values and results so you are away from any hassle.
Without any delay you get pinpoint signal alerts helps you decide which one to trade as many as you desire. Its multifunctional and resilient software benefits you from 80% accuracy on both long and short term trading options, where as short term trading options are fruitful for regular and instant income and long term trading options are highly veracious and induce a better return.
With an emphasis on providing the most excellent customer services and guidance through every step even if you are new to the trading world and had no experience before, this software really helps you out to gain your experience through online competition with other traders. Guaranteed Wealth System links trading signals through a communication network which is based on market behaviour and conditions. It traces, analyze and foretell lucrative trades, over 120 times regularly.
How It Work - Guaranteed Wealth System review
This Guaranteed Wealth review is also designed to allow you learn how this software program works. It had been tried for more than 12,000 users and they said that it worked amazingly. With Guaranteed Wealth, you now have the chance to win 8 out of 10 trades. Whether you aim for a higher return amount or not, rest assured that Guaranteed Wealth will let you know the right time to call or put.
Guaranteed Wealth review – What to Expect?
• The system can be used by complete beginners with no knowledge about the market.
• You can get started in just a dew minutes.
• Begin trading in the market like an expert trader.
• Get super accurate industry leading signals using the system.
• The system uses its unique price predictor so that you can get the best trade.
• Helps you in going from a complete beginner to an expert within a matter of a few minutes.
• And much more!
Pros - Guaranteed Wealth review
This system has a lot to offer, here are some of its main benefits:
• 100% automated – it trades for you
• Fully functional 30-day trial period with no credit card needed
• Can turn $500 into $2271 in few days
• No previous experience with binary options trading needed
• Web based, no need for downloads, also works on phones, tablets Cons - Guaranteed Wealth review
• It is sold in the web. It can only be bought online so it will be a slight inconvenience to you especially if you don’t have a computer or laptop. However, the ordering process takes less time allowing you to start making more profits with Guaranteed Wealth right away.
Conclusion - Guaranteed Wealth review
Guaranteed Wealth is truly a great software program that can give you the simplest way to make more returns from joining the trades. It has been created through an extensive research in order to ensure positive results. It can provide you the benefits that you cannot experience before. Don’t have hesitations to try this software. Learn what other people say about it and see that it can be the best answer to your desire. It will let you avoid having more losses as you get better profits. Get it today and see that it really works.
submitted by GWlth to GWlth [link] [comments]

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